Tag Archive: sushant koltey


We Indians Like to speak endlessly about Films, Cricket and Politics.

Right from the time of independence India is facing trouble from its neighboring states like Pakistan(most of the times), China(worst)  and Bangladesh.

But we have made Kashmir, the issue of international level and we are used to raise the attention to this issue as if we dont have any other issues relating to borders.

Bangladesh is also a menace to India because its a constant source of illegal migrants into India.

Its a historical truth that whenever there is dense population of Muslims in any area that particular area or region becomes the source of the illegal and anti-national activities.

And its not true only for INDIA but its applicable to any country populating Muslim.

But Pakistan and Bangladesh are not real threats to India because in many ways they are similar to India and indian rituals because of common history and common ancestry.

The real threat to INDIA is from China.

China is a mean and very aggressive country with very dangerous ambitions. China has unethically occupied Tibet and sent the spiritual leader TheDalai Lama into exile. Also China illegally captured the soil of INDIA at border .

China is continuously using double standards for the nationals of INDIA.

China claims Indian states Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura as its part and this is a whitest LIE. But China treat the people of these states as Non-Indians and issues different VISAs for people of those states.

Also China is helping Extremist groups of these areas and other states  of India by supplying them MONEY and GUNS, AMMUNITION and Artillery.

This causing political unrest and instability in Many Indian states as these extremist groups are attacking ordinary people .

So in view of these things it is very Important for India and Indian Government to not neglect the ‘absolutely threatening and mean China’.

If INDIA continues to neglect increasing power and influence of China in bordering areas and its abetting to extremist groups then India will again face the horror of partition .

And History will laugh at INDIA for its foolish act and serious negligence of protecting her children and its sovereignty.

hi dear ones,

Corruption as a source of Employment !!

Corruption is as old as the system itself.

Corruption started as help then as favor and then exchange and now its a business and more than that its a source of employment to many of its practitioners.

Government offices are the main source of the Corruption then come Public and social sector and then Private sector.

now Let me make myself very clear that i am not in favor of corruption or want to encourage corruption , I just want to put a different view.

Corruption in any form is BAD !!!

With ever increasing population its not possible to give employment to every educated and eligible person.

so these persons find sources of income through back doors of the system where ‘money’ is the key.

people who are discouraged by the inefficiency and arrogance of the clerks/ officers and time consuming delays in the process of red tape use these back doors through these commission agents for faster work.

So in many departments there are people who have made friends with the officials and have made it their full time employment to help people or assist people  via this ‘friendly channel’.

This help/assistance which charge some more money than necessary is known as CORRUPTION.

Now if people are getting help by spending some extra money and saving their time in queues in front of offices as well as agents earning some money is not wrong.

This is Corruption (so called) as a source of employment.

hi dear ones,

Its The most celebrated and desired season in India.

Yes, Its Rainy Season !!!!

Who doesnt like rain? I think from Kids to Oldies everybody love rain.

There is a story that tells the importance of  Rain.

Once a King asked how much is 27- 9 = ?

as expected all answered 18 !!!

But only King’s wisest of the Minister answered “0” (ZERO). Everybody laughed but King, he asked the minister HOW?

Wise Minister said ” O King, there are three seasons Summer, Winter and Rainy. Every season has 9 Nakshatra so in total there are 9.

If you minus Nine Nakshtra of rainy season from total 27 you will have chaos everywhere, no crops, no drinking water, no food.

Considering this I gave you my Answer 27 – 9 = 0.

So thats how important rain is for all of us.

Here are some happy faces.

Now that we are all wet and happy what is that we need most?


hi dear ones,

The World’s 5 Most Wanted Criminals


Matteo Messina Denaro

The world’s most famous organized crime network remains powerful and arguably its most formidable fugitive member is Denaro, who is also known as “Diabolic.” The Italian mafia’s playboy, Denaro is known for living a fast lifestyle, driving Porches and fancying Rolex watches. He is believed to be taking over the mafia’s operations in the fallout surrounding the capture of long time Cosa Nostra leaders, most notably Bernardo Provenzano, who Italian authorities finally grabbed in 2006. Denaro played an important role in a Cosa Nostra campaign in 1993 involving deadly bomb attacks to force the government to stop its mafia crackdown.


Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar

India’s most wanted man heads D-Company, an organized crime group based in Mumbai. This son of a policeman reputedly oversees a criminal empire involved in all sorts of international activity, including drug trafficking, counterfeiting, weapons smuggling and murder. Ibrahim is suspected of having organized the 1993 Bombay Blasts that killed 257 people and wounded 713.

He is believed to have associated with Al Qaeda. The U.S. has declared him a global terrorist and the United Nations has attempted to freeze his assets. Though the Pakistani government denies it, the 52-year-old Ibrahim is probably in Pakistan. He is believed to have close links to Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence agency and travels on passports from India, Yemen, Pakistan. There are rumors that he has had plastic surgery to alter his appearance.


Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov

Originally from Uzbekistan, Tokhtakhounov is the face of the modern Russian mob, especially since Semion Mogilevich was detained earlier this year. Tokhtakhounov is known as “Taiwanchik” for his Asian features. The U.S. government calls him a “major figure in international Eurasian Organized Crime” who has been involved in “drug distribution, illegal arms sales and trafficking in stolen vehicles.”

He is suspected of fixing everything from beauty pageants to Olympic events in Utah. In 2002, the U.S. government indicted him for bribing Olympic figure skating judges to favor the French team, robbing Canadians Jamie Sale and David Pelletier of gold medals in the pairs competition. The U.S. tried to get him after he was arrested in Italy, but the Italians eventually freed Tokhtakhounov, who has since disappeared and is probably in Russia.


Joaquin Guzman

Mexico’s most powerful drug trafficker has taken over the drug racket once dominated by Colombians like Pablo Escobar. Guzman, known as el Chapo, or shorty, heads the Sinaloa Cartel, specializing in importing cocaine from Colombia and smuggling it into the U.S., often through elaborate tunnels. Ruthless and determined, Guzman has lorded over a bloody power struggle in Mexico over transport corridors to the U.S. that have left thousands dead.

After the Mexican courts ruled he could be extradited to the U.S. in 2001, Guzman escaped from prison in a laundry truck. Since then he has evaded close encounters with the Mexican military. The U.S. government has indicted Guzman and placed a $5 million bounty on this fugitive


Osama Bin Laden

The most wanted man in the world is believed to be hiding in Pakistan, perhaps in the Waziristan region. U.S. President George W. Bush has said Bin Laden is wanted dead or alive. But for six years, Bin Laden has been able to evade the largest manhunt in international history by sticking to the unruly tribal areas along the Pakistan-Afghanista n border.

Bin Laden, the leader of Al Qaeda, is the world’s biggest terrorist. He has been indicted in federal court in New York for the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania that killed more than 200 people. Bin Laden has also been charged for conspiring to kill Americans outside the U.S. He has claimed responsibility for the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the U.S. that killed 3,000 people, including both Americans and foreign nationals. The State Department has put a $25 million reward on his head. The Saudi-born Bin Laden is probably 51 years old.


hi dear ones,

Strange Uses of Coca Cola

Just when you thought you knew everything.. ..
1. In many states the highway patrol carries two gallons of Coke in the trunk to remove blood from the highway after a car accident.
2. You can put a T-bone steak in a bowl of coke and it will be gone in two days.
3. To clean a toilet: Pour a can of Coca-Cola into the toilet bowl… Let the “real thing” sit for one hour, then flush clean.
4. The citric acid in Coke removes stains from vitreous China.
5. To remove rust spots from chrome car bumpers: Rub the bumper with a crumpled-up piece of Reynolds Wrap aluminum foil dipped in Coca-Cola.
6. To clean corrosion from car battery terminals: Pour a can of Coca-Cola over the terminals to bubble away corrosion.
7. To loosen a rusted bolt: Applying a cloth soaked in Coca-Cola to the rusted bolt for several minutes.
8. To remove grease from clothes: Empty a can of coke into a load of greasy clothes, add detergent, and run through a regular cycle. The Coca-Cola will help loosen grease stains. It will also clean road haze from your windshield.

9. The active ingredient in Coke is phosphoric acid. Its pH is 2.8. It will dissolve a nail in about 4 days.
10. To carry Coca-Cola syrup (the concentrate) the commercial truck must use the Hazardous material place cards reserved for Highly Corrosive materials.
11. The distributors of Coke have been using it to clean the engines of their trucks for about 20 years.

Coca Cola India

hi dear ones,

in these days one must take care of one’s skin naturally.


like this…………..


Your skin care treatment for your skin problems lies in your kitchen. Use natural skin care treatment and remedies. Why waste money on skin care products. They actually harm your skin.

Almond Oil

Almond oil is good for dryness of the skin and for removing scars of old pimples. Ground the outer cover of 3-5 almonds in with water and apply over the face daily.


Apply or drink juice of pineapple for body and facial pains.

Apply juice of green apples for fine wrinkles, cracked skin, itching and inflammations.


Apply fresh juice of apricots on face good for sunburn, itching, and eczema.

Bengal Gram Flour

Apply a paste of Bengal Gram flour with yogurt for the treatment of pimples and other skin allergies.

Apply green gram flour mixed in water or glycerine for improving complexion.


Apply cucumber juice or grated cucumber or cucumber juice mixed with juices of carrot, lettuce or alfalfa over the face for skin eruptions.


Apply a paste of ground drumstick pods and leaves with fresh lime juice for the treatment of pimples, black spots and blackheads.


Apply a paste of fresh fenugreek leaves in water over the face every night and washed with warm water in the morning for preventing pimples, blackheads, dryness, and wrinkles.

Apply a decoction on the face, made by boiling 1 tsp fenugreek seeds in 1 liter water for a few of minutes for preventing pimples, blackheads, dryness, and wrinkles.


Rub raw garlic on the face for persistent pimples. The pimples will disappear without scars with repeated applications.

Mix 3-4 raw, skinned garlic, finely cut garlic with puffed rice, and swallow with water to clear skin infections quickly.

Groundnut Oil

Mix 1 tsp groundnut oil with 1 tsp fresh lime juice to prevent formation of blackheads and pimples .


Apply honey (1 tsp) mixed with water for all skin blemishes. This will turn your skin glowing.

Apply honey mixed with milk, yogurt, and ground sesame seeds in equal proportions for fair complexion and lovely skin.

Lime Juice

Apply fresh lime juice mixed to a glass of boiled milk as a face wash for pimples blackheads, and cracked skin.


Boil mangoes leaves and skin in water and apply for skin infection.


Apply fresh mint juice over the face every night for the treatment of pimples, insect stings, eczema, scabies, & other skin infections.

Neem Leaves

Swallow 10 fresh ground neem leaves with water to clear the skin.

Chew fresh neem leaves and then swallow with water to remove bad odor from the mouth.


Apply a paste of ground orange peel (dried) with water for acne/pimples.

Papaya or Paw Paw

Apply and drink the juice of raw papaya including the skin and seed for treatment of swelling pimples, acne, or any abnormal growth of the skin. It also removes whiteheads, boils, and spots.

Rub raw or ripe papaya on your face to get a smooth and glowing skin.


Apply or drink juice of pineapple for body and facial pains.

For removing fine wrinkles, rub the core of pineapple for a few minutes and leave for 15 minutes

Apply juice of pineapples for fine wrinkles, cracked skin, itching and inflammations.


Make a paste of roasted & powdered pomegranate skin with fresh lime juice and apply over boils, pimple, blackheads and whiteheads.


Apply grated potatoes as poultice to treat skin blemishes, wrinkles, boils, pimples, blackheads, whiteheads , etc.


Make a paste of ground radish seeds with water and apply on face to remove blackheads.

Apply grated white radish or its juice for fairer complexion.


Apply a paste of rice powder with water as a poultice for soothing bleeding pimples and skin inflammations.

Sesame Seeds

Apply a paste of ground sesame seeds with water as poultice for inflammation of the skin due to allergies, skin rashes, and pimples.


Apply red tomatoes pulp on your face for treatment of pimples for 1 hour, then wash thoroughly.


Apply a paste of turmeric powder with pineapple juice for dark circles under the eyes.

Apply a paste of turmeric powder with gram flour or whole wheat flour for minor skin blemishes.

Apply a paste of turmeric powder with sugarcane juice to remove wrinkles and to prevent skin ageing.

Wheat Flour

Apply a paste of whole wheat flour with vinegar to remove dark spots.


Apply a paste of yogurt with wheat flour as a cleanser.

hi dear ones,

WHY     108   ?

As per Indian mythology, Indian culture has a very special significance of
number 108. What is this number represent, and why is it so important?

1) In one minute, we breathe in approximately 15 times, in 1 hour 900 times,
and in 12 hours 10800 times, and in a day 10800 * 2 times. A day consists
of 24 hours, and if we set aside half the day for our day to day routines,
then one can spend 12 hours for recitation of one’s idol. Therefore, the
maximmum number of times that one can recite “mantra”, or perform “Jap” are
10800. If one wants to obtain 100% benefit of its jap, then performing
jap 108 times will give you the benefit of 100%. That’s why in a “Mala”,
there are 108 beads. It is written in Vedas, that 1 Jap corresponds to
1 mala (which has 108 beads), therefore performing jap of 108 malas will
result in 100% benefit.

2) Astronomically, there are 27 constillations in our galaxy, and each one them
has 4 directions, and 27 * 4 = 108, In other words the number 108 covers
the whole galaxy.

3) According to Indian scriptures, letter 9 corresponds to Lord Brahma (the
creator of universe). Mathematically, the interesting property of 9 is
9×1 = 9
9 x 2 = 18 (8+1 = 9)
9 * 3 = 27 (7+2 = 9)
9 * 12 = 108 (1+0+8 = 9)
4) In Hindu religion, number 9 is very important. Keeping the importance of
number 9, Rishi Vyas has created 9 Purans, 108 MahaPuran (Upnishads).
Mahabharat has 18 chapters, Geeta has 18 chapters, Bhagavat has 108000
Shloks (verses).

The addition of digits of number 108 is 9, and number 9 is related with
Brahma, that’s why 108 is very important, and came into lot of Indian

5) Indian Vedas, treats the Sun as God, and Sun has 12 signs (Zodiac signs).
In Yajurved, Sun is related with Lord Brahma (the number 9), remember –
12 * 9 = 108; therefore for Gods Prayer, the number 108 is very sacred.

6) According to Indian mythology, there are 4 Yugs
Satyug – consists of 172,800 years (1+7+2+8 = 18 == (1+8 = 9)
TretaYug consists of 1296000 years (1+2+9+6 = 18 = (1+8 = 9)
DwaparYug consists of 864000 years (8+4+6) = 18 = (1+8 = 9)
Kaliyug consists of 432000 years (4+3+2) = 9

Harshad number:
108 is a Harshad number, which is an integer divisible by the sum of its digits (Harshad is from Sanskrit, and means “great joy”)

There are said to be 108 earthly desires in mortals.

There are said to be 108 lies that humans tell.

There are said to be 108 human delusions or forms of ignorance.

Heart Chakra:
The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.

Sanskrit alphabet:
There are 54 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Each has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti. 54 times 2 is 108.

If one is able to be so calm in meditation as to have only 108 breaths in a day, enlightenment will come.

Some say there are 108 Upanishads, texts of the wisdom of the ancient sages.

Sri Yantra:
On the Sri Yantra there are marmas where three lines intersect, and there are 54 such intersections. Each intersections has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti qualities. 54 times 2 equals 108. Thus, there are 108 points that define the Sri Yantra as well as the human body.  The angle formed by two adjacent lines in a pentagon equals 108 degrees.
Pentagon: The angle formed by two adjacent lines in a pentagon equals 108 degrees.

Marmas or marmasthanas are like energy intersections called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body.

Time: Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future.

8 extra beads:
In doing a practice of counting the number of repetitions of the mala, 100 are counted as completed. The remaining are said to cover errors or omissions. The 8 are also said to be an offering to God and Guru.

Interestingly, there are about 115 elements known on the periodic table of the elements. Most of those, around or higher than the number 100 only exist in the laboratory, and some for only thousandths of a second. The number that naturally exist on Earth is around 100.

There are 12 constellations, and 9 arc segments called namshas or chandrakalas. 9 times 12 equals 108. Chandra is moon, and kalas are the divisions within a whole.

River Ganga :
The sacred River Ganga spans a longitude of 12 degrees (79 to 91), and a latitude of 9 degrees (22 to 31). 12 times 9 equals 108.

Planets and Houses:
In astrology, there are 12 houses and 9 planets. 12 times 9 equals 108.

Goddess names:
There are said to be 108 Indian goddess names.

Gopis of Krishna:
In the Krishna tradition, there were said to be 108 gopis or maid servants of Krishna .

1, 0, and 8:
Some say that 1 stands for God or higher Truth, 0 stands for emptiness or completeness in spiritual practice, and 8 stands for infinity or eternity.

Sun and Earth:
The diameter of the Sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is 108 times the diameter of the Sun.

Moon and Earth:
The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 108 times the diameter of the Moon.

Silver and the moon:
In astrology, the metal silver is said to represent the moon. The atomic weight of silver is ?108.

Numerical scale:
The 1 of 108, and the 8 of 108, when added together equals 9, which is the number of the numerical scale, i.e. 1, 2, 3 … 10, etc., where 0 is not a number.

Some say there are 108 styles of meditation.

Tantra estimates the average number of breaths per day at 21,600, of which 10,800 are solar energy, and 10,800 are lunar energy. Multiplying 108 by 100 is 10,800. Multiplying 2 x 10,800 equals 21,600.

Paths to God:
Some suggest that there are 108 paths to God.

Smaller divisions:
The number 108 is divided, such as in half, third, quarter, or twelfth, so that some malas have 54, 36, 27, or 9 beads.

108 is said to refer to the number of Hindu deities. Some say that each of the deities has 108 names.

The number 108 is used in Islam to refer to God.

In the Jain religion, 108 are the combined virtues of five categories of holy ones, including 12, 8, 36, 25, and 27 virtues respectively.

The Sikh tradition has a mala of 108 knots tied in a string of wool, rather than beads.

Some Buddhists carve 108 small Buddhas on a walnut for good luck. Some ring a bell 108 times to celebrate a new year. There are said to be 108 virtues to cultivate and 108 defilements to avoid.

The Chinese Buddhists and Taoists use a 108 bead mala, which is called su-chu, and has three dividing beads, so the mala is divided into three parts of 36 each. Chinese astrology says that there are 108 sacred stars.

Stages of the soul:
Said that Atman, the human soul or center goes through 108 stages on the journey.

This is a larger bead, not part of the 108. It is not tied in the sequence of the other beads. It is the quiding bead, the one that marks the beginning and end of the mala.

There are 108 forms of dance in the Indian traditions.

Praiseworthy souls:
There are 108 qualities of praiseworthy soul

First man in space:
The first manned space flight lasted 108 minutes, and was on April 12, 1961 by Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut

Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future.

hi dear ones,

i found this on the net and thought to share it with you.

Airliner Black Boxes

 The “black box” is a generic term for two recording devices carried aboard commercial airliners. The Flight Data Recorder (FDR) records a variety of parameters related to the operation and flight characteristics of the plane. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) records the voices of the flight crew, engine noise, and any other sounds in the cockpit. All large commercial airliners and certain varieties of smaller commercial, corporate, and private aircraft are required by law to carry one or both of these boxes, which generally cost between $10,000 and $15,000 apiece. The data these devices provide is often invaluable to experts investigating the events leading up to an accident. The recovery of the boxes is one of the highest priorities in any mishap investigation, second only to locating survivors or recovering the remains of victims. FDR information is also often used to study other aviation safety issues, engine performance, and to identify potential maintenance issues.

Despite the nickname “black box,” the FDR and CVR are actually painted a bright high-visibility orange with white reflecting strips to make them easier to spot at a crash scene. The meaning of the term black box itself is somewhat unclear. Some suggest it refers to the black charring that occurs in a post-crash fire while others believe the color black is a reference to the deaths often associated with an accident investigation. The design of modern black boxes is regulated by a group called the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The ICAO determines what information the black boxes must record, over what length of time it is saved, and how survivable the boxes must be. The ICAO delegates much of this responsibility to the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) that maintains a document called the Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems.

Black boxes first began to appear in the 1950s and became mandatory during the 1960s. These early devices used magnetic tape for data storage, much like that used in a tape recorder. As the tape is pulled over an electromagnetic head, sound or numerical data is recorded on the medium. Analog black boxes using magnetic tape are still present aboard many planes, but these recording devices are no longer manufactured. Newer recorders instead use solid-state memory boards, called a Crash Survivable Memory Unit (CSMU), that record data in a digital format. Instead of the moving parts present in older recorders, solid-state devices use stacked arrays of memory chips similar to a USB memory stick. The lack of moving parts eases maintenance while reducing the chance of a critical component breaking in a crash. Solid-state recorders can also save considerably more data than older magnetic tape devices and are more resistant to shock, vibration, and moisture.

Whatever the medium used to record the data, the purpose of the black boxes is to collect information from various sensors aboard an aircraft. The Cockpit Voice Recorder, for example, saves sounds from microphones located on the flight deck. An area microphone is typically placed in the overhead instrument panel between the pilots, and an additional microphone is located in the headset of each member of the flight crew. These microphones pick up conversations between the flight crew, engine noises, audible warning alarms, landing gear sounds, clicks from moving switches, and any other noises like pops or thuds that might occur in the cockpit. The CVR also records communications with Air Traffic Control, automated radio weather briefings, and conversations between the pilots and ground or cabin crew. These sounds often allow investigators to determine the time of key events and system failures.

Analog magnetic tape recorders are required to store four audio channels for at least 30 minutes while digital solid-state devices are required to record for two hours. Both types use continuous recording such that older information is written over as new data is collected beyond the maximum time limit.
The Flight Data Recorder collects data from a number of sensors to monitor information like accelerations, airspeed, altitude, heading, attitudes, cockpit control positions, thermometers, engine gauges, fuel flow, control surface positions, autopilot status, switch positions, and a variety of other parameters. Most parameters are recorded a few times per second but some FDRs can record bursts of data at higher frequencies when inputs are changing rapidly.

The data measured by the different sensors is collected by the Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU). This device is typically located in an equipment bay at the front of the aircraft beneath the flight deck. The FDAU assembles the desired information in the proper format and passes it on to the FDR at the rear of the plane for recording. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) required the FDR to record between 11 and 29 parameters, depending on aircraft size, up to 2002 but now requires saving a minimum of 88 sets of data. Analog FDRs can save a maximum of around 100 variables while digital recorders are often capable of collecting over 1,000 parameters over the course of 25 hours.

Power for the black boxes is provided by electrical generators connected to the engines. The generators on most large airliners produce a standard output of 115 volt, 400 hertz AC power while some smaller planes instead generate 28 volt DC power. Black boxes are typically designed to use only AC or DC power but not either one. Recorders built for compatibility with the AC power supplies on larger planes cannot be used on small DC-powered aircraft. In the event of engine failure, larger aircraft are also equipped with emergency backup power sources like the auxiliary power generator and ram air turbine to continue operating the black boxes. In addition, the ICAO is considering making a battery mandatory on solid-state recorders to provide an independent power supply in the event of a complete power failure aboard the plane.

A common misconception states that the black boxes are “indestructible.” No manmade device is indestructible, and no material has ever been developed that cannot be destroyed under severe enough conditions. The black boxes are instead designed to be highly survivable in a crash. In many of the worst aviation accidents, the only devices to survive in working order are the Crash Survivable Memory Units (CSMUs) in the black boxes. The remainder of the recorders, including the external case and other internal components, are often heavily damaged.

The CSMU, however, is contained within a very compact cylindrical or rectangular box designed to safeguard the data within against extreme conditions. The box is composed of three layers to provide different types of protection to the recording medium. The outermost shell is a case made of hardened steel or titanium designed to survive intense impact and pressure damage. The second layer is an insulation box while the third is a thermal block to protect against severe fire and heat. Together, these three layered cases allow the FDR and CVR to survive in all but the most extreme crash conditions.

Current regulations require the black boxes to survive an impact of 3,400 g’s for up to 6.5 milliseconds. This rapid deceleration is equivalent to slowing from a speed of 310 miles per hour (500 km/h) to a complete stop in a distance of just 18 inches (45 cm). This requirement is tested by firing the CSMU from an air cannon to demonstrate the device can withstand an impact force at least 3,400 times its own weight. The black boxes must also survive a penetration test during which a steel pin dropped from a height of 10 ft (3 m) impacts the CSMU at its most vulnerable point with a force of 500 pounds (2,225 N). In addition, a static crush test is conducted to demonstrate that all sides of the CSMU can withstand a pressure of 5,000 pounds per square inch (350 kg/cm�) for five minutes. The fire resistance of the CSMU is further tested by exposing it to a temperature of 2,000�F (1,100�C) for up to an hour. The device is also required to survive after lying in smoldering wreckage for ten hours at a temperature of 500�F (260�C).

Other requirements specify survivability limits when immersed in liquids. The CSMU must endure the water pressure found at an ocean depth of 20,000 ft (6,100 m), and a deep-sea submersion test is conducted for 24 hours. Another saltwater submersion test lasting 30 days demonstrates both the survivability of the CSMU and the function of an Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB), or “pinger,” that emits an ultrasonic signal once a second when immersed in water. These signals can be transmitted as deep 14,000 ft (4,270 m) and are detectable by sonar to help locate the recorders. A final series of tests includes submerging the CSMU in various fluids like jet fuel and fire extinguishing chemicals to verify the device can withstand the corrosive effects of such liquids.

Upon completion of the testing, the black boxes are disassembled and the CSMU boards are extracted. The boards are then reassembled in a new case and attached to a readout system to verify that the pre-recorded data written to the device can still be read and processed.

Another factor important to the survivability of the black boxes is their installation in the tail of the aircraft. The exact location often varies depending on the plane, but the FDR and CVR are usually placed near the galley, in the aft cargo hold, or in the tail cone. The recorders are stored in the tail since this is usually the last part of the aircraft to impact in an accident. The entire front portion of the plane acts like a crush zone that helps to decelerate the tail more slowly. This effect reduces the shock experienced by the recorders and helps to cushion the devices to improve their chances of surviving the crash.

Once the black boxes have been located following an accident, they are typically taken into custody by an aviation safety agency for analysis. In the United States, responsibility for investigating most air accidents belongs to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Many countries lacking the capability to analyze black boxes also send their recorders to the computer labs of the NTSB or some of the better-equipped investigative organizations in Western nations. Care must be taken in recovering and transporting the recorders so that no further damage is done to the devices that might prevent important data from being extracted.

Upon receipt of the recorders, the NTSB uses a series of computer and audio equipment to process and analyze any information that can be recovered. The data is translated into formats readily usable by investigators and is usually critical in identifying the probable cause(s) of the accident. This process may take many weeks or months depending on the condition of the black boxes and the level of processing required to make sense of the data. Outside experts are also often consulted to help analyze and interpret the data.

Flight Data Recorder information is typically presented in the form of graphs or animations used to understand instrument readings, flight characteristics, and the performance of the aircraft during its final moments. Cockpit Voice Recorder information is usually more sensitive and laws strictly regulate how it is handled. A committee including representatives of the NTSB, FAA, the airline, the manufacturers of the aircraft and engines, and the pilots union is responsible for preparing a transcript of the CVR’s contents. This transcript is painstakingly created using air traffic control logs and sound spectrum analysis software to provide exact timing. Although the transcript can be released to the public, only select and pertinent portions of the actual audio recording are made public due to privacy concerns.

Flight recorder design has improved considerably since the devices were first introduced in the 1950s. However, no recording device is perfect. Black boxes are sometimes never found or too badly damaged to recover some or all of the data from a crash. To reduce the likelihood of damage or loss, some more recent designs are self-ejecting and use the energy of impact to separate themselves from the aircraft. Loss of electrical power is also a common event in aviation accicents, such as Swissair Flight 111 when the black boxes were inoperative for the last six minutes of flight due to aircraft power failure. Several safety organizations have recommended providing the recorders with a backup battery to operate the devices for up to ten minutes if power is interrupted.
Another recommendation is to add a second independent set of recorders on a separate electrical bus to insure redundancy in the event of a system failure. The additional recorders would be located as close to the cockpit as possible while the existing black boxes remain in the tail to reduce the likelihood of a single failure incapacitating both sets. Accident investigators have also argued for the installation of a third black box to record cockpit video. Though pilots have so far resisted the move because of privacy issues, video data would be useful to better understand pilot actions in the moments leading up to an accident.

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To better the prospects of the employees in the workplace, here is a list of undesirable work habits that hinder productivity and so one must always attempt to avoid them:

1] Poor planning
People come to work every day with no proper agenda in place, in terms of what work they want to do in the day. They have no goals set to achieve. “Lack of planning of the day at work or at the job is one of the most ‘non-productive’ habits at the workplace. This can, however, be rectified by a simple basic discipline of starting the day with some basic agenda in place,” says Alok Bansal, CEO, Alethia Education Services.

2] Superiority complex
If you feel you’re better at your work than others, then you are in for some serious problem. If you don’t pay any heed to what others have to say and don’t give any regard to the view points of your colleagues; it causes more crisis to you in the long run than anyone else.

3] Not maintaining notes
A lot of time is wasted in looking for information that has not been noted or properly recorded. It is a common trend nowadays that people don’t make notes of conversations with clients or peers. “Despite the tools available today, most of us seem to be losing on this count. Simple yet important things like relevant phone numbers or contact details of clients are lost or need to be searched. This causes immense loss of time and effort. As they say, information is the key and will always remain a powerful tool in the corporate world,” adds Bansal.

4] Dependency on mails
A majority of people are dependent on their mails to find out what work is to be done. The philosophy of ‘if the inbox is empty, the work is done’ is followed which is not setting a proper trend.

5] Not being a team worker
It is not enough that one is good at his work. One should cooperate with his team mates so that work gets done effectively. If you have adjustment problems with the team you are working with, then work does not get done efficiently.

6] Not able to fit in your workplace
Not getting acclimatized to your work environment and adapting to the ethics of workplace creates a troubled surrounding to work at and dissatisfied workers.

7] Unpunctuality
Considered an HR problem, tardiness is a topic on which a lot of research has been put in. Reaching late to one’s work and meetings can jeopardize one’s career and also impact productivity.

8] Poor time management
It is a common occurrence in workplaces that while some people constantly crib about more work pressure, few others claim of less work. In this regard, Bansal says that if one is looking to rise up the ladder, one has to manage time well.

9] Gossips and loose talk
Gossip mongers in any organization are at best avoided. Yearly appraisals have shown this group to get the lowest scores. So loose talks do not help anyone grow rather performance does.

10] No sense of responsibility/ ownership
If you are not responsible for your activities or don’t own up your mistakes, this will endanger your career in the time to come.