hi dear ones,
We know there are many athletes who are banned for lifetime or have to return their medals for using illegal drugs in the competitions.
Here we will see what types of drugs those are and how they affect.
hope you will enjoy it.
Types of performance-enhancing drugs
Although the phrase performance-enhancing drugs are typically used in reference to anabolic steroids or their precursors, world anti-doping organizations apply the term broadly. The phrase has been used to refer to several distinct classes of drugs:
- Lean mass builders are used to drive or amplify the growth of muscle and lean body mass, and sometimes to reduce body fat. This class of drugs includes anabolic steroids, beta-2 agonists, selective androgen receptor modulator SARMs and various human hormones, most notably human growth hormone, as well as some of their precursors.
- Stimulants are used by athletes to stimulate their bodies and perform at optimum level, usually to increase alertness, decrease fatigue, and/or increase aggressiveness. Examples include caffeine and amphetamines.
- Painkillers mask athletes’ pain so they can continue to compete and perform beyond their usual pain thresholds. Blood pressure is increased causing the cells in the muscles to be better supplied with vital oxygen. Painkillers used by athletes range from common over-the-counter medicines such as NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen) to powerful prescription narcotics.
- Sedatives are sometimes used by athletes in sports like archery which require steady hands and accurate aim, and also by athletes attempting to overcome excessive nervousness or discomfort. Alcohol, beta blockers, and marijuana are examples.
- Diuretics expel water from athletes’ bodies. They are often used by athletes such as wrestlers, who need to meet weight restrictions. Many stimulants also have a secondary diuretic effect.
- Masking drugs are used to prevent the detection of other classes of drugs. These evolve as quickly as do testing methods – which is very quickly indeed – although a time-tested classic example is the use of epitestosterone, a drug with no performance-enhancing effects, to restore the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio (a common criterion in steroid testing) to normal levels after anabolic steroid supplementation.