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Cyber crime


Cyber crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network, where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of the crime. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child porn, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise.

Computer crime may be divided into one of two types of categories: (1) crimes that target computer networks or devices directly; (2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device.

Examples of crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices would include:

Examples of crimes that merely use computer networks or devices would include:

Some of the aspects of cyber crime are:

Spam

Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes.

Fraud

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. Altering computer input data in an unauthorized way. Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output data, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions, deleting stored data.

Obscene or offensive content

The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances these communications may be illegal.

Harassment

Harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties.

Cyber terrorism

Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources. Hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organised by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples’ lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.

Who can be Cyber Criminal
Eight types of cyber-criminals, distinguished by their skill levels and motivations.

Novice
Limited computer and programming skills.
Rely on toolkits to conduct their attacks.
Can cause extensive damage to systems since they don’t
understand how the attack works.
Looking for media attention.
Cyber-punks
Capable of writing their own software.
Have an understanding of the systems they are attacking.
Many are engaged in credit card number theft and
telecommunications fraud.
Have a tendency to brag about their exploits.
Internals
a) Disgruntled employees or ex-employees
May be involved in technology-related jobs.
Aided by privileges they have or had been assigned as part of their
job function.
Pose largest security problem.
b) Petty thieves
Include employees, contractors, consultants .
Computer literate.
Opportunistic: take advantage of poor internal security.
Motivated by greed or necessity to pay off other habits, such as
drugs or gambling.
Coders
Act as mentors to the newbies. Write the scripts and automated
tools that others use.
Motivated by a sense of power and prestige.
Dangerous — have hidden agendas, use Trojan horses.
Old guard hackers
Appear to have no criminal intent.
Alarming disrespect for personal property.
Appear to be interested in the intellectual endeavor.
Professional criminals
Specialize in corporate espionage.
Guns for hire.
Highly motivated, highly trained, have access to state-of-the-art
equipment.
Information warriors/cyber-terrorists
Increase in activity since the fall of many Eastern Bloc intelligence
agencies.
Well funded.
Mix political rhetoric with criminal activity.Political activist
Possible emerging category.
Engage in hacktivism.