hi dear ones,

In ancient hindu universities following 14 vidya “knowledge” & 64 kala “arts” were taught.

And it was important to learn all these at basic level at least and as per pupils interest he/she

was allowed to learn it to expert level.

Sixty-four activities in fine arts and crafts are the following:

(1) gita — art of singing.

(2) vadya — art of playing on musical instruments.

(3) nritya — art of dancing.

(4) natya — art of theatricals.

(5) alekhya — art of painting.

(6) viseshakacchedya — art of painting the face and body with colored unguents and cosmetics.

(7) tandula-kusuma-bali-vikara — art of preparing offerings from rice and flowers.

(8) pushpastarana — art of making a covering of flowers for a bed.

(9) dasana-vasananga-raga — art of applying preparations for cleansing the teeth, cloths and painting            the body.

(10) mani-bhumika-karma — art of making the groundwork of jewels.

(11) sayya-racana — art of covering the bed.

(12) udaka-vadya — art of playing on music in water.

(13) udaka-ghata — art of splashing with water.

(14) citra-yoga — art of practically applying an admixture of colors.

(15) malya-grathana-vikalpa — art of designing a preparation of wreaths.

(16) sekharapida-yojana — art of practically setting the coronet on the head.

(17) nepathya-yoga — art of practically dressing in the tiring room.

(18) karnapatra-bhanga — art of decorating the tragus of the ear.

(19) sugandha-yukti — art of practical application of aromatics.

(20) bhushana-yojana — art of applying or setting ornaments.

(21) aindra-jala — art of jugglery.

(22) kaucumara — a kind of art.

(23) hasta-laghava — art of sleight of hand.

(24) citra-sakapupa-bhakshya-vikara-kriya — art of preparing varieties of salad, bread, cake and delicious food.

(25) panaka-rasa-ragasava-yojana — art of practically preparing palatable drinks and tinging draughts with red color.

(26) suci-vaya-karma — art of needleworks and weaving.

(27) sutra-krida — art of playing with thread.

(28) vina-damuraka-vadya — art of playing on lute and small x-shaped drum. (29) prahelika — art of making and solving riddles.

(29-a) pratimala — art of caping or reciting verse for verse as a trial for memory or skill.

(30) durvacaka-yoga — art of practicing language difficult to be answered by others.

(31) pustaka-vacana — art of reciting books.

(32) natikakhyayika-darsana — art of enacting short plays and anecdotes.

(33) kavya-samasya-purana — art of solving enigmatic verses.

(34) pattika-vetra-bana-vikalpa — art of designing preparation of shield, cane and arrows.

(35) tarku-karma — art of spinning by spindle.

(36) takshana — art of carpentry.

(37) vastu-vidya — art of engineering.

(38) raupya-ratna-pariksha — art of testing silver and jewels.

(39) dhatu-vada — art of metallurgy.

(40) mani-raga jnana — art of tinging jewels.

(41) akara jnana — art of mineralogy.

(42) vrikshayur-veda-yoga — art of practicing medicine or medical treatment, by herbs.

(43) mesha-kukkuta-lavaka-yuddha-vidhi — art of knowing the mode of fighting of lambs, cocks and birds.

(44) suka-sarika-prapalana (pralapana)? — art of maintaining or knowing conversation between male and female cockatoos.

(45) utsadana — art of healing or cleaning a person with perfumes.

(46) kesa-marjana-kausala — art of combing hair.

(47) akshara-mushtika-kathana — art of talking with letters and fingers.

(48) mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpa — art of fabricating barbarous or foreign sophistry.

(49) desa-bhasha-jnana — art of knowing provincial dialects.

(50) pushpa-sakatika-nirmiti-jnana — art of knowing prediction by heavenly voice or knowing preparation of toy carts by flowers.

(51) yantra-matrika — art of mechanics.

(52) dharana-matrika — art of the use of amulets.

(53) samvacya — art of conversation.

(54) manasi kavya-kriya — art of composing verse mentally.

(55) kriya-vikalpa — art of designing a literary work or a medical remedy.

(56) chalitaka-yoga — art of practicing as a builder of shrines called after him.

(57) abhidhana-kosha-cchando-jnana — art of the use of lexicography and meters.

(58) vastra-gopana — art of concealment of cloths.

(59) dyuta-visesha — art of knowing specific gambling.

(60) akarsha-krida — art of playing with dice or magnet.

(61) balaka-kridanaka — art of using children’s toys.

(62) vainayiki vidya — art of enforcing discipline.

(63) vaijayiki vidya — art of gaining victory.

(64) vaitaliki vidya — art of awakening master with music at dawn.

OR

There are various lists of these 64 “arts”. or Kala’s. One more list is as follows:

1. Vocal music

2. Instrumental music

3. Dance

4. Acting

5. Painting

6. Making emblems

7. Making garlands and other creations with flowers

8. Artwork for mattresses

9. Artwork for bedspreads

10. Body esthetics

11. House decoration

12. Making musical instruments operated by water (such as the jalataranga, for instance)

13. Making sound effects in water

14. Costume and fashion design

15. Making pearl necklaces

16. Hair styling

17. Art of dressing

18. Making ear ornaments

19. Flower decoration

20. Food styling

21. Magic

22. Landscaping

23. Manicure

24. Pastry making

25. Making drinks

26. Sewing

27. Making nets

28. Solving and creating riddles

29. Reciting poems

30. Discoursing on epics and poetical works

31. Reading

32. Attending theatrical plays

33. Completing verses left unfinished (samasya) by others as a challenge

34. Making cane furniture

35. Woodworking

36. Debate

37. Architecture

38. Assessing gold and gems

39. Metallurgy

40. Cutting and polishing diamonds

41. Searching for ore

42. Special knowledge of trees and plants

43. Cock fighting

44. Interpreting the songs of birds

45. Massage

46. Hair care

47. Sign language

48. Learning foreign languages

49. Scholarship in local languages

50. Predicting the future

51. Mechanical engineering

52. Strengthening memory power

53. Learning by ear

54. Instantaneous verse-making

55. Decisiveness in action

56. Pretense

57. Prosody

58. Preserving clothes

59. Gambling

60. Playing dice

61. Playing with children

62. Rules of respectful behavior

63. Art of storytelling and entertaining, (like bards and minstrels)

64. Grasping the essence of subjects.

AND 14 Vidya :::—

1.

The science of proper articulation and pronunciation (shiksha)

2.

Science of rituals (kalpa)

3.

Grammar (vyakaran)

4.

Etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words (nirukta)

5.

Astrology (jyotiish)

6.

The science of prosody (Chandas)

7.

The Rugveda

8.

The Yajurveda

9.

The Samaveda

10.

The Atharvaveda

11.

The Purva-Uttarmimmansa (concerned with the correct interpretation of Vedic

rituals and the settlement of dubious points with regard to Vedic texts)

12.

A system of Hindu philosophy founded by Sage Goutam (nyaya)

13.

The Purans

14.

The science of righteous conduct (dharmashastra)