Archive for April, 2010


CENSUS

hi dear ones,

INDIA CENSUS – 2011

A HUGE CAMPAIGN

In all fifteenth, seventh after independence census of India commenced today the 1 April, 2010. One of the giant campaigns worldwide commenced from Honourable President Mrs. Pratibha Patil. Let’s, therefore, know some of the major features of “India Census – 2011”.

FIRST PHASE

First phase of “India Census – 2011”. will be undertaken from 1 April, 2010 to 30 September, 2010. During this phase registration of house and other properties is going to be made.

SECOND PHASE

Second phase of “India Census – 2011”. will be undertaken during 9 to 28 February, 2011. In this phase actual census is to be made.

MAGIC OF FIGURES
Services of in all 24, 42,934 officials is being utilized during the process of “India Census – 2011”. Probable expenditure for “India Census – 2011” is Rs. 5956 crore. Similarly, 11,631 tons of paper is required to be used to accomplish the process of “India Census – 2011”.

SILENT FEATURES

  1. Name, gender, date of birth, nationality, educational qualification, present and permanent address, relationship with the head of family, father’s name, mother’s name, marital information, place of birth, occupation, name of spouse etc. of every individual will be registered.

  2. For the first time, photographs, impressions of all ten hand fingers, scanning of eyeballs (iris), cell phone numbers, banking details, drinking water facilities, and other household facilities available in every family is also going to be registered.

  3. The so collected information will then going to be registered in ”National Population Register” and every individual accordingly will be given one Unique Identity Number. Individual not having such unique identity number will not be entitled for any Government scheme thereafter.


OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

  1. For the first time, caste wise counting will not be undertaken.

  2. The information collected during the process of “India Census – 2011” will be kept secret. Such information will not be available even to the Courts of Law.

  3. According to sources, the naxalists, if appeared for census, they will not be arrested.


COMPARISON WITH CENSUS 2001

Process of census was undertaken in 35 States during census 2001. Likewise, census 2011 will also be undertaken in 35 states.

  1. As compared to 593 districts covered in 2001, 640 districts will be covered under “India Census – 2011”.

  2. Similarly, as compared to 5463 taluka (tahsil – mandal) covered in 2001, 5767 taluka will be covered under “India Census – 2011”.

  3. As compared to 5161 cities and 593732 villages covered in 2001, 7742 cities and 608786 villages will be covered under “India Census – 2011”


It is, thus, national duty of every Indian to participate and co-operate “India Census – 2011”


hi dear ones,

Postal Index Number:PIN

A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by India Post, the Indian postal administration. PIN stands for Postal Index Number and the code is 6 digits long. The PIN was introduced on August 15, 1972.

There are nine PIN zones in India, including eight regional zones and one functional zone. The first digit of the PIN code indicates the region in which a given post office falls in. The second digit indicates the sub-region, and the third digit indicates the sorting district within the region. The final three digits are assigned to individual post offices.

The nine PIN zones cover the Indian states and union territories as follows:

hi dear ones,

Most  Magical number is ZERO !!!

why ?

Because each Zero is making you Larger, Bigger and Greater !!!!!

Number of zeros U.S. & scientific community Other countries
3 thousand thousand
6 million million
9 billion 1000 million (1 milliard)
12 trillion billion
15 quadrillion 1000 billion
18 quintillion trillion
21 sextillion 1000 trillion
24 septillion quadrillion
27 octillion 1000 quadrillion
30 nonillion quintillion
33 decillion 1000 quintillion
36 undecillion sextillion
39 duodecillion 1000 sextillion
42 tredecillion septillion
45 quattuordecillion 1000 septillion
48 quindecillion octillion
51 sexdecillion 1000 octillion
54 septendecillion nonillion
57 octodecillion 1000 nonillion
60 novemdecillion decillion
63 vigintillion 1000 decillion
66-120 undecillion – vigintillion
303 centillion
600 centillion

hi dear ones,
Brain Boosting Activities

If you don’t keep your mind active, studies show that your brain loses some of its functionality as you age, which causes memory loss, brain fog, and even Alzheimers.

A well-stimulated brain also elevates your mood, which helps you feel better on the inside.

Here are 15 brain boosting activities:

1. Play games that challenge and stimulate your mind. These include:

* Picture Puzzles
* Strategy Games
* Crossword Puzzles
* Card Games
* Deduction Games (such as Clue)
* Visualization Puzzles
* Optical Illusions

2. Reading stimulates the brain as it activates your imagination. Reading also helps with memory retention and problem solving, especially if youre reading a mystery. Also, self-help books stimulate your brain by helping you to think for yourself, as well as find solutions in your mind..

3. Exercising helps circulate blood that carries oxygen to your brain. Over the long-term, exercise is proven to increase brainpower and even create new neurons.

4. Stimulate your brain with meditation.. Meditation has been shown to increase your IQ, relieve stress, and promote a higher level of brain functioning. Meditation also stimulates the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the area of the brain responsible for advanced thinking, ability and performance.

5. Deep breathing helps deliver oxygen to your brain. Oxygen helps you be more alert and awake. As little as 10 to 15 minutes of deep breathing daily can increase brain functionality.

6. Taking fish oil supplements is literally like membrane material for the brain.. The two primary components in fish oil, DHA and EPA, strengthen the emotional center of the brain and boost focus.

7. Studies have proven that listening to music strengthens the right hemisphere of the brain and actually changes the structure of it. Also, people who listen to music are shown to be more emotionally intelligent than those who dont.

8. Writing improves memory and thought expression. Writing articles, blogs, or journal entries stimulates thought processes, which also enhances brain function.

9. Sleep clears out brain clutter and reduces brain fog. When you dont get enough sleep at night, your memory and normal brain function suffers.

10. Painting is shown to be an effective brain booster in that it sparks the creativity within you. Even if youve never tried painting before, give it a shot. Youll find that you feel more creative and may actually enjoy it.

11. Starting the day out with a good breakfast has been proven to supply energy to the brain and body for the whole day. When you skip breakfast, youre missing out on a powerful edge, both physically and mentally.

12. Walking allows you to clear your mind and thoughts. Not only is it good exercise for your body, walking gives your brain a chance to wander freely, clearing it of any troublesome thoughts.

13. Drink a serving of pure fruit juice.. Fruit juice contains nutrients that revitalize and refresh the brain. Juices to drink are pomegranate, blueberry, and cranberry as they deliver more focus and energy.

14. Students who drink some caffeine before an exam typically have higher scores than those who dont. This is because caffeine stimulates activity in the brain, which produces better focus and thinking ability. Dont overdo it though!

15. Draw a picture.. Like painting, drawing stimulates the creative side of your brain. So get out some colored pencils and start boosting your brainpower.

To get the most out of these brain boosting activities, mix them up and do a variety of them at different times. Just choosing one wont boost your brainpower, however, combining and alternating them will give your brain the added boost you need now and in the long run.

hi dear ones,

Body wisdom to combat body odour

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Every region of the human body has a different odour; sometimes the odour is so distinctive so as to allow immediate identification of its origin . For instance, underarm and feet odours are easily recognised .

Recent medical research has shown that people with body odour are prone to less confidence levels which ultimately affect their personal and social relationships.

Feelings of shame, embarrassment, low self-esteem, isolation, frustration, anxiety and depression are extremely common where Body odour is present. Body odor refers to the unpleasant smell that is emitted by the body. The smell results from the presence of bacteria on the body.

The most common body parts that are associated with body odor include hair, feet, groin, skin, armpits, genitals, pubic hair, belly button and ears. Though sweating is seen as the most common reason for body odor, there are other reasons as well, due to which your body may emit a foul smell.

Sweat is not caused only by outside heat; it can also be caused by nervousness, sudden anxiety, unease, apprehension or fear. Perspiration, or sweat, is body’s way of cooling itself, whether that extra heat comes from hardworking muscles or from over-stimulated nerves. Body odor is primarily generated in the area under the arms where there is a high concentration of sweat glands.

Body odour can be an embarrassment, which many face from time to time. Zodhita Inc., a successful pharma company from US is launching a range of Antiperspirants and Deodorants in Indian market to combat the typical body odour and perspiration problems of Indians. The range is available in the Indian market from October 2009 onwards. Go check out the Personal Hygiene shelves for the latest solutions available in the range of anti-perspirants and deodorants from Zodhita.

Seven simple home remedies to kill body odour. Alivia C suggests these simple and effective steps to reduce body odour and the ill effects there of:

Wash yourself: Take bath twice a day and always wash your self with soap and water, particularly areas that are likely to smell, such as the armpits and genital areas and the mouth. A few drops of rose water or tea tree oil added to the bath, will give long lasting freshness.

Use an Antiperspirant: Antiperspirants leave chemicals on the skin that kills the bacteria that causes body odour.

Kitchen comes to rescue: Applying baking soda, apple cider vinegar, white vinegar, alcohol, lime or ashes, tomatoes, which are readily available at home, can also help reduce perspiration.

Eat healthy: What you eat is directly related to your body odour, so eat healthy and avoid processed foods and too much red meat. Frequent consumption of garlic, cumin and masala can be the cause of foul smell, avoid alcohol and tobacco – this worsens your problem. According to medical experts, extracts of proteins and oils from certain foods and spices remain in your body’s excretions for hours after eating them and can also impart on your body odour. Drink lots of water and fresh vegetable juices to reduce sweating and hydrate the body. Drink a glass of water in the morning, on an empty stomach, along with 500mg of wheatgrass. The chlorophyll present in the grass will help in reducing odour.

Cotton is the answer: Make it a habit of wearing fabrics such as cotton rather than synthetic materials. Cotton fabrics allow air to pass through it. So it reduces sweating and the odour associated with it. Choose your colours carefully; the colour black is known to produce heat which can make you sweat profusely. You can wear other cool colours like blue and white. You should avoid repeating your clothes without washing them and make it a point to wash the parts under the armpits thoroughly.

Waxing: The underarms tend to accumulate more sweat, removing hair by waxing or shaving helps prevent sweat rings.

Keep Calm: Keeping calm can also do the trick. Getting excited, feeling anxious or nervous make you perspire a lot. If you know you will go through these emotions, you have to use an extra dose of the antiperspirant in the morning.

hi dear ones,

The Benefits of Yoga

swami-ramdev

The benefit of yoga practice goes far beyond the actual time you spend in the poses. One of the most common reasons why people begin practicing yoga is to improve their health and well-being.

Yoga means union. It is a union of the mind, body and breath, so all aspects of your life are impacted by your practice.

A major benefit of yoga is physical.

Yoga improves your flexibility. – The stretching that you engage in during every practice helps lengthen and stretch muscles, which helps reduce the risk of injuries.

It helps to improve your balance. – The majority of yoga practices include some type of balancing in the poses. A significant number of people, especially as they began to get older, start to have problems with balance, which can lead to major injuries due to falls. By having a greater sense of balance, you are able to move more easily and safely.

Yoga can help reduce pain. – Tense muscles often contribute to pain. Relaxing muscles helps to minimize muscle tension and the pain that is associated with it. Also, breathing deeply into muscles helps lessen pain by altering your perception of it.

It tones your muscles. – Yoga works all the muscles in your body. It helps strengthen and tone them and also builds endurance and stamina.

It helps to increase your level of energy. – Carrying tension in your body takes an enormous toll on your energy reserves. By learning how to relax through your yoga practice, you benefit by enjoying higher levels of energy so you can more thoroughly enjoy your daily activities.

Yoga helps promote a sense of relaxation.- Most people breathe high in their chests. This not only does not allow them to get sufficient oxygen, it also triggers the stress response, which contributes to feelings of anxiety. Breathing deeply as practiced in yoga, helps relax your muscles and also brings much needed oxygen to your cells. The deep sense of relaxation also leads to better quality sleep.

Each yoga practice ends with some type of relaxation. Since your body and mind are one, by relaxing your body you also relax your mind. Many yoga experts believe that a relaxation pose is the most beneficial pose in any yoga practice.



Another benefit of yoga is mental.

Yoga clears your mind and helps you focus your attention. – During your practice, you are focusing your attention on your breath and turning inward. This concentration allows you to withdraw from the distractions in your environment. A significant benefit of yoga practice is that you can take this ability to focus your attention into every aspect of your life.

You can be fully present with whatever you are doing instead of worrying about tomorrow or regretting yesterday. Not only will your actions be more productive, you can also enjoy them in a greater way.

Yoga helps reduces stress.- Deep breathing helps reduce the hormones that are released when you are feeling overwhelmed, overloaded, and frazzled. The internal focus that accompanies the poses helps create a relaxation response in your body.

Yoga can help release stuck emotions.- Often stuck emotions find their way into our bodies. Remember, your mind and body are one, and if you are suppressing any painful emotions, you will often experience that as pain in some part of your body. A benefit of yoga is that by breathing deeply into places in your body that hold tension, you can help release the emotions that may be buried there. You can then examine these emotions and let go of those that do not serve you.

Also, as you take your body past the limits of where it has been, you start to feel that you can move past other limitations in your life as well.

You gain a sense of peace and tranquility. – Most yoga practices include some time for meditation. Regular meditation helps your mind reach a state of inner calm. It helps you gain control over your thinking instead of being at the mercy of wayward thoughts.

As you can see, the benefit of yoga has far reaching effects in every area of your life. Maintain a regular yoga practice, and you will see for yourself, how yoga can benefit you too.

hi dear ones,

World’s First Digital Camera (1975): Created by Kodak’s engineer Steve Sasson

In December 1975, Kodak engineer Steve Sasson invented something that would, decades later, revolutionize photography: the world’s first digital camera. It was the size of a toaster, and captured black and white images at a resolution of 100×100 – or 0.01 megapixels in today’s marketing terminology. The images were stored on cassette tape, taking 23 seconds to write. The camera uses an ADC from Motorola, a bog-standard (for the 1970s) lens from a  Kodak movie camera, and a CCD chip from Fairchild Semiconductor – the same technology that digital cameras still use today. To playback the images, a special computer and tape reader setup (pictured below) was built, outputting the grainy images on a standard TV. It took a further 23 seconds to read each image from tape.

World’s First Motel (1925): Motel Inn

Motel Inn in San Luis Obispo, California, is the world’s first motel. It was built in 1925 by LA architect Arthur Heineman, who coined the term motel  meaning “motor hotel.” Motel Inn was originally called the Milestone Mo-Tel. Back then, one night stay was $1.25. Heineman couldn’t afford the trademark  registration fee, so his competitors were able to use the word “motel.” The motel is still in operation today.

World’s First Album Cover (1938): Smash Song Hits by Rodgers and Hart

Before Alex Steinweiss, then a 23-year-old designer, invented album covers in 1938 for Columbia Records, albums were sold in plain brown wrappers. The album “Smash Song Hits by Rodgers and Hart” was the very first album cover in the world.

World’s First Novel (1007): Tale of Genji

More than a thousend years ago, on 1007, a Japanese court lady put the finishing touches on what is considered the world’s first novel. Spanning 75 years,  more than 350 characters, and brimming with romantic poems, the “Tale of Genji” tells the story of an emperor’s son, his quest for love, and the many women  he meets along the way. It is attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu.

World’s First Web Server and Web Site (1990): a NeXT computer at CERN

Info.cern.ch was the address of the world’s first-ever web site and web server, running on a NeXT computer at CERN. The first web page address was http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html, made by Tim Berners-Lee.

World’s First Motorcycle (1885): Daimler’s “riding car”

The First Motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (Stuttgart) in 1885.  It was essentially a motorised bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen (“riding car”). It was also the first petroleum-powered vehicle.

World’s First X-Ray (1895): Röntgen’s wife hand

In 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, professor of physics the University of Wurburg in Germany, was doing experiments with electrical discharges in  evacuated glass tubes. Late in 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen was alone at night doing his experiments, this time in the dark and noticed a glow was produced  on the wall, which he knew was not caused by fluorescence or visible light. He named these new, unidentified rays ‘X’ or if you prefer; X-rays.  After several months of playing with his discovery he noticed that objects place in the path of the rays cast shadows and created images on the wall. Soon after he used a photgraphic plate and had his wife, Frau Röntgen, place her hand in the path of the X-rays, creating the world’s first X-ray picture.  In 1901 Wilhelm Röntgen was awarded the very first Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery.

World’s First Computer Mouse (1964): by Douglas Engelbart

The world’s first computer mouse was made by Douglas Engelbart in 1964, it consisted of two gear-wheels positioned perpendicular to each other — allowing movement on one axis. Ergonomic shape, great button placement — and it’s made of wood.

World’s First Skyscraper (1885): Home Insurance Building in Chicago

Considered to be the first skyscraper in the world due to the building’s unique architecture and unique weight bearing frame, the Home Insurance Building  was built in 1885 in Chicago, Illinois and demolished in 1931 to make way for the Field Building (now the LaSalle National Bank Building).  It was the first building to use structural steel in its frame, but the majority of its structure was composed of cast and wrought iron. It was the first tall building to be supported, both inside and outside, by a fireproof metal frame. It had 10 stories and rose to a height of 138 feet (42 m) high.

World’s First Concept Car (1938): Buick

Designed in 1938 by the famous General Motors designer Harley Earl, the Buick Y-Job is considered by most to be the first concept car. The car had power-operated hidden headlamps, “gunsight” hood ornament, wraparound bumpers, flush door handles, and prefigured styling cues used by Buick until the 1950s.

World’s First MP3 Player (1998): MPMan 32MB

Released in 1998, the Eiger Labs MPMan was the world’s first MP3 player, boasting 32MB of internal memory — expandable to 64MB. Available in F10 or F20 models, the latter boasting SmartMedia compatibility, this player set you back a mere $69 + shipping. It measures a slim 91 x 70 x 16.5 mm.

World’s First Crossword (1913): Arthur Wynne’s Invention

In 1913, Arthur Wynne had the job of devising the weekly puzzle page for Fun, the eight-page comic section of the New York World, a major newspaper  of the time. When he devised what he called a Word-cross for the Christmas edition, published on 21 December, he could have no idea that he would be starting a worldwide craze.

World’s First Microprocessor (1971): Intel 4004

In November, 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the world’s first single chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented  by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stan Mazor. After the invention of integrated circuits revolutionized computer design, the only place to go was down

— in size that is. The Intel 4004 chip took the integrated circuit down one step further by placing all the parts that made a computer think (i.e. central processing unit, memory, input and output controls) on one small chip. Programming intelligence into inanimate objects had now become possible.

World’s First Magazine (1731): The Gentleman’s Magazine

The Gentleman’s Magazine, first published in 1731, in London, is considered to have been the first magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman’s  Magazine under the pen name “Sylvanus Urban”, was the first to use the term “magazine”, on the analogy of a military storehouse of varied materiel, originally derived from the Arabic makazin “storehouses”. It ceased publication in September, 1907.

World’s First Photograph (1826): “View from the Window at Le Gras”

Centuries of advances in chemistry and optics, including the invention of the camera obscura, set the stage for the world’s first photograph.  In 1826, French scientist Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, took that photograph, titled View from the Window at Le Gras at his family’s country home.  Niépce produced his photo—a view of a courtyard and outbuildings seen from the house’s upstairs window—by exposing a bitumen-coated plate in  a camera obscura for several hours on his windowsill.

hi dear ones,

Top Best Car Engines



Car engine is the heart and soul of every car without which no car can be driven. It is a big confusing clutter of metals, tubes, and wires that work in tandem to produce power to run the car. Usually cars are equipped with front-mounted engines but there are few cars in which the engine is either mid-mounted or rear-mounted. The position, displacement, and the type of component in the engine actually affect the performance of the car. If the engine has the best of technologies mated to high quality components, it delivers impressive performance and fuel efficiency.

Car engines are mainly classified based on the power they generate, technologies they equip, and types of components they use. These factors make few engines better than the others.

Explained below are 10 best car engines:

Rover K-Series

Rover engineers developed a light weight engine called K-series in 1988 which received a lot of appreciation for its innovative technology. Initially the engine was launched with 1.1-litre and 1.4-litre capacity which was later increased to up to 2.5-litre V6 specification.

Austin A-Series

A-Series engine from Austin is a very powerful engine seen in car models like Austin A30, Austin A40, Minor, Allegro, Maestro, Metro and even Montego. This engine is known for its quick response and power. Equipped in the one of the world’s most popular hatches Mini, the Austin’s engine confirmed its superiority. The engine was introduced about 50 years ago and is still to retain its position as one of the most frugal car engine for the next 50 years to come.

Rolls-Royce V8

The Rolls Royce V8 is a smooth and simply structured engine that delivered commendable performance. Gradually, as new technologies started entering the market the engine was modified and upgraded for relatively higher performance and fuel efficiency. The V8 engine became more powerful when the turbocharger was strapped to it.

BMW V12

The BMW V12 engine with 6.1-litre engine capacity was exclusively designed for the McLaren F1 supercar by the Motorsport Division. The racing car manufacturer had presented the proposal of V12 engine to different firm and it was finally accepted by the M-Sport. It was a tough job to develop an engine with an output of 621 bhp without a turbo or supercharger, electrifying performance and spine-tingling sound effects. It was one of the most sizzling creations

Alfa Romeo Boxer

The engine was named as Boxer because of the fact that its pistons are positioned horizontally opposite to each other. It reveals one of the most important engine layouts. The concept of the boxer was developed by the talented engineer Karl Benz in 1896. Karl Benz was a German mechanical engineer who designed and developed world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Porsche Flat Six

The Flat Six from Porsche was one of the most successful engines that showed its presence for many years in different forms. This engine came into existence in the 1964 with the capacity of 2.0-litre. The engine made its first debut in air-cooled form in the Porsche 911. Though initially the engine was seen with the 2.0-litre capacity, later for the 1993 Porsche models it was increased to a capacity of 3.6-litres. In 1998 with help of the innovative technology, the Flat Six engine came up with the new water-cooled version which was completely different from the traditional version. The latest version of this engine is seen with 3.8-litre that delivers amazing performance despite the rigid modern regulations.

Lamborghini V12

This engine started its journey long back in 1964 with 3.5-litre engine capacity. The first engine was equipped in the 350GT. Lamborghini V12 has made its presence under the hood of the legendary car models like Miura, Countach, and Diablo. It was seen in different size and power. The supreme version of this engine still flaunts in Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 which is powered by a 6.5-litre engine that generates an awesome power output of 631 bhp.

Chevrolet V8

The V8 engine from Chevrolet came into existence in 1955 and since then nearly 90 million engines have been manufactured. Chevrolet V8 engine received immense popularity among the stock car racers and was known as the “Mighty Mouse” motor, which was named after the popular cartoon character of the time. It is one of the engine which offers effective design and compact packaging. Easy to tune V8 engine has the capacity to deliver 370 bhp.

Honda V-TEC

Honda had to bear heavy tax on its large capacity engines and as a result the car manufacturer came up with a small yet powerful engine. The Honda’s V-Tech engine with variable valve timing is one of the most frugal engines in the present day automotive industry. The engine comprises two sets of cam lobes, one for smooth low speed running and another for awesome power output. The design and engineering of the engine was a challenging task but the manufacturer is still rejoicing the engine’s high performance and success even after 16 years of its introduction.

Ford Cosworth

This is the most powerful engine that since its introduction has powered many car models. Initially this engine delivered 204bhp which was increased to 227 bhp in the Escort Cosworth model. These four-cylinder in-line units are compact in design and are customized to provide increased power output and performance. It was further modified where the small and refined 2.0-litre engine delivered 550 bhp. Cosworth is an automotive engineering company that joined hands with Ford to started produce racing car engines in 1959.

hi dear ones,

MISTAKES

mistake

If a barber makes a mistake,

It’s a New Hair Style

If a driver makes a mistake,

It is a New Path

If an engineer makes a mistake,

It is a New Design

If parents makes a mistake,

It is a New Generation

If a politician makes a mistake,

It is a New law

If a scientist makes a mistake,

It is a Invention

If a tailor makes a mistake,

It is a New Fashion

If a teacher makes a mistake,

It is a New Syllbus

If our boss makes a mistake,

It is a

New idea

and

If an employee makes a mistake,

It is a

Mistake Only

mistake

hi dear ones,

Exotic ancient India

The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many Super natural beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and close to God. Narrations about these tribes are often mixed with mythology and fiction. These tribes include Gandharvas, Yakshas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Rakshasas, Nagas, Suparnas, Vanaras, Vidyadharas, Valikilyas, Pisachas, Devas (within them Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Adityas) and Asuras (within them Danavas, Daityas and Kalakeyas.)

Their exotic capabilities included

1.       the ability to appear and disappear at will

2.       the ability to fly in air, with or without the use of an airborne vehicle

3.       the knowledge of aircraft (vimana)

4.       the ability to change shape at will (read Shapeshift)

5.       the ability to read people’s minds

6.       the knowledge of other inhabited planets like the Earth

7.       the ability to influence natural forces

Gandharvas

Gandharvas are described as fierce warriors who could challenge even the great Kshatriya warriors. They were also skilled in art, music and dance.

The name Gandharva could have been derived from the name Gandhara. Ghandarva shtan currently became Pakistan and Afghanistan. The city of Kandahar in Afghanistan is said to have been named after Gandhara.

Yaksas

According to Ramayan Kubera established or rebuilt the kingdom of Lanka (now know as Srilanka) and habitated with Yaksa people. The Yaksas were a tribe living in the area surrounding the Kailasa range of the Himalayas.

Kinnaras

They were fierce warriors skilled in horse ride and horse warfare. Some of them were robber tribes who invaded village settlements, by raiding them using their skilled cavalry forces. The myth of Kinnaras probably came from these ferocious warrior tribes, who terrorized the Vedic settlements.

The epic Mahabharata and the Puranas describe, regions north to Himalayas as the abode of Kinnaras. There is now a district named Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh which is thought to be the domain of the Kinnara tribes. People of this district call themselves as Kinnaurs.

Kimpurushas

Kimpurushas were described to be lion faced beings. Some Puranas consider Kinnaras and Kimpurushas as same while Mahabharata contains passages where Kinnaras and Kimpurushas were considered as two separate groups.

Rakshasas

Rakshasas were described to have large bodies, probably due to their continuous life in cold climates over snow-covered mountains. Rakshasas were normal humans who followed a certain religious way (Vyam Raksham, Aggression and Protection of spiritual life) as opposed to Yakshas (Vyam Yaksham, enjoyment and pleasure ignore spiritual pursuits).

Nagas

Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata.The demi-god tribe called Suparnas (in which Garuda belonged) were arch-rivals of the Nagas. However, the Nagas near Kashmir seems to be the original abode of all of them. The name of the place Anantnag might be related to this theory. Srinagar, Sri Nag Ghar, holy home of the Saint of Nagas.

Suparnas

The Suparnas (also known as Garudas) were probably the Falcon worshipping or falcon rearing Iranians who conquered the Naga territories of north west India. Yet another view is that Nagas and Garudas were the two rival factions of the same tribe. Mahabharata also support this view since it describes the two races originating from two mothers who were sisters.

Vanaras

Vanaras were a tribe who dwelled within dense forests. During the time of Ramayana, the central part of Indian peninans was covered by a dense forest by the name Dandaka Forest. Some literature describes them as monkeys, some as apes.