Archive for March 30, 2010


kingdoms in India

hi dear ones,

the following table will give the name of kingdoms in ancient India.

almost all the names in tables will be found in the map.

The greatest............. BHARAT

Main kingdoms of Northern and North-Central India

Kuru Kingdom Panchala Kingdom Vatsa Kingdom

Main kingdoms of North-Central India

Kosala Kingdom Kasi Kingdom Videha Kingdom Dakshina Kosala Kingdom Malla Kingdom

Kingdoms of Western and Central-West India

Surasena Kingdom Dwaraka Kingdom Anarta Kingdom Saurashtra Kingdom Heheya Kingdom
Nishadha Kingdom Gurjara Kingdom Karusha Kingdom Chedi Kingdom Dasarna Kingdom
Kunti Kingdom Avanti Kingdom Malava Kingdom

North-Northwestern (Fishermen’s) kingdoms

Matsya Kingdom

Western kingdoms

Trigarta Kingdom Salwa Kingdom Madra Kingdom Sindhu Kingdom Sauvira Kingdom
Sivi Kingdom Kekeya Kingdom Gandhara Kingdom Youdheya Kingdom Pahlava Kingdom

Northwestern kingdoms

Bahlika Kingdom Parama Kamboja Kingdom Uttara Madra Kingdom Uttara Kuru Kingdom
Yavana Kingdom Khasa Kingdom Saka Kingdom

Northern kingdoms

Kasmira Kingdom Kamboja Kingdom Darada Kingdom Parada Kingdom Parasika Kingdom
Tushara Kingdom Huna Kingdom Hara Huna Kingdom Rishika Kingdom China Kingdom

Eastern kingdoms

Magadha Kingdom Kikata Kingdom Anga Kingdom Pragjyotisha Kingdom Sonita Kingdom
Lauhitya Kingdom Pundra Kingdom Suhma Kingdom Vanga Kingdom Odra Kingdom
Utkala Kingdom

Kingdoms just South of the Vindhya Range

Vidarbha Kingdom Anupa Kingdom Surparaka Kingdom Nasikya Kingdom
Konkana Kingdom Asmaka Kingdom Danda Kingdom Kalinga Kingdom

Kingdoms in the far South in mainland India

Telinga Kingdom Andhra Kingdom Kishkindha Kingdom Gomanta Kingdom Karnata Kingdom Pandya Dynasty
Chera Dynasty Mushika Kingdom Chola Kingdom Kanchi Kingdom Pahlava Kingdom Sinhala Kingdom
Satyaputra Kingdom Tulu Kingdom

Saraswati Valley kingdoms

Saraswata Kingdom Abhira Kingdom Sudra Kingdom Nishada Kingdom

Himalayan kingdoms

The table lands and valleys of the great Himalayan Mountain Ranges, which were almost inaccessible to the people settled in the Ganga, Sarasvati River and Sindhu river valleys, were inhabited by tribes who had very little interactions with the rest of the world. The Vedic people of the plains considered these tribes to be super-human and in later periods considered them even as natural-spirits. The domains of these exotic tribes are listed below:

To know about the mythological aspects of these exotic tribes see Hindu mythology. To know about the historical significance of these tribes see the Exotic tribes of ancient India.

Kimpurusha Kingdom Pisacha Kingdom Naga Kingdom Kinnara Kingdom Yaksha Kingdom
Gandharva Kingdom Kirata Kingdom Himalaya Kingdom Parvata Kingdom Nepa Kingdom

Bharatvarsha............India for you !!!

hi dear ones,

DRUGS

Drugs

There is variety

Narcotics: A drug that produces numbness or stupor; often taken for pleasure or to reduce pain; extensive use can lead to addiction

Alcohol and tobacco rank among the ten most dangerous substances used by humans. Both alcohol and tobacco have been assessed to be more dangerous than illegal drugs like marijuana or ecstasy.

The following three factors are considered in the way of  harmfulness of each drug that are given below:

  • Physical harm to the user
  • Addictive potential of the drug
  • The drug’s overall impact on society

Ranked from most to least dangerous, the ten most dangerous substances were deemed to be:

  1. Heroin – popular street names include smack, skag, and junk.
  2. Cocaine – often referred to as snow, flake, coke, and blow.
  3. Barbiturates – popular slang names include yellow jackets, reds, blues, Amy’s, and rainbows.
  4. Street Methadone
  5. Alcohol
  6. Ketamine – a powerful hallucinogen, often referred to as Special K.
  7. Benzodiazepines – a family of sedative drugs.
  8. Amphetamines – known as greenies among baseball players.
  9. Tobacco
  10. Buprenorphine – also called bupe or subbies.

The remaining drugs that were assessed in this study ranked as follows:

  1. Cannabis – includes marijuana.
  2. Solvents – volatile substances that can be inhaled, such as glue, nail polish remover, paints, hair spray, and lighter fuel (gas).
  3. 4-MTA – is a derivative of amphetamine and has similar effects to ecstasy.
  4. LSD
  5. Methylphenidate – central nervous system stimulant, commonly sold as ritalin.
  6. Anabolic steroids
  7. GHB – short for Gamma hydroxybutyrate, a powerful central nervous system depressant, most commonly known as the date rape drug.
  8. Ecstasy
  9. Alkyl nitrates – group of drugs commonly referred to as poppers.
  10. Khat – an amphetamine-like stimulant.

I want a KICK !!!

LIST of Drugs

Narcotics of Natural Origin
Opium
Morphine
Codeine
Thebaine
Semi-Synthetic Narcotics
Heroin
Hydromorphone
Oxycodone
Hydrocodone
Synthetic Narcotics
Meperidine
Dextropropoxyphene
Fentanyl
Pentazocine
Butorphanol
Narcotics Treatment Drugs
Methadone
LAAM
Buprenorphine

Say loudly "" NO DRUGS "" !!!!!!

hi dear ones,

Different Types of Operating Systems

operating-system

Operating systems that create a link between users and the applications form the core of computer systems. It dissociates the programs and the hardware and simplifies resource management. Let us look at the different types of operating systems.

Real-time Operating System: It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main object of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They either have an event-driven or a time-sharing design. An event-driven system switches between tasks based of their priorities while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems: The operating systems of this type allow a multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.

Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems: When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking system, while in case the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to Windows 95 used to support cooperative multitasking.

Distributed Operating System: An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a distributed operating system. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other, gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.

Embedded System: The operating systems designed for being used in embedded computer systems are known as embedded operating systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE, FreeBSD and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

OS most commonly used