hi dear ones,

NATYASHASTRA

Natya !!

The Rasas

Bharata Muni enunciated the eight Rasas in the Nātyasāstra, an ancient work of dramatic theory. Each rasa, according to Nātyasāstra, has a presiding deity and a specific colour. There are 4 pairs of rasas. For instance, Hasya arises out of Sringara. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and the aura of an angry person is red. Bharata Muni established the following.

  • . Śringāram: Love, Attractiveness. Presiding deity: Vishnu. Colour: light green.
  • Hāsyam :Laughter, Mirth, Comedy. Presiding deity: Pramata. Colour: white.
  • Raudram: Fury. Presiding deity: Rudra. Colour: red.
  • Kārunyam: Compassion, Mercy. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour: grey.
  • Bībhatsam: Disgust, Aversion. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: blue
  • Bhayānakam: Horror, Terror. Presiding deity: Kala. Colour: black
  • Vīram: Heroic mood. Presiding deity: Indra. Colour: yellowish
  • Adbhutam: Wonder, Amazement. Presiding deity: Brahma. Colour: yellow

The Bhavas

The Natyasastra identifies eight rasas with eight corresponding Bhava (mood):

  • Rati (Love)
  • Hasya (Mirth)
  • Soka (Sorrow)
  • Krodha(Anger)
  • Utsaha (Energy)
  • Bhaya (Terror)
  • Jugupsa (Disgust)
  • Vismaya (Astonishment)

The Four Ingredients of Abhinaya

Abhinaya can further be divided into four categories, as set down by the Natya Shastra.[1]

Āṅgika Abhinaya

This relates to the movement of the body, and how the thing to be expressed is portrayed by movement of the anga or limbs.This relates to the movement of the body, and how the thing to be expressed is portrayed by movement of the anga or limbs, which include facial expressions. There are different schools of Abhinaya, with the expressions ranging from the grotesque to the understated, from the crude to the refined. Āngika abhinaya forms either Padartha abhinaya (when the artiste delineates each word of the lyrics with gestures and expressions), or Vaakyartha abhinaya (where the dancer acts out an entire stanza or a sentence).

Vāchika Abhinaya

This relates to how expression is carried out through speech. It is obviously therefore more overtly used in drama, but also in music: in how the singer expresses the emotion through his or her singing. Traces of Vāchika Abhinaya are preserved in Kuchipudi and Melattur style of Bharatanatyam where the dancers often mouth the words of the songs to support Padartha abhinaya.

Āhārya Abhinaya

This is expression through the use of external fittings, such as costumes, ornaments, lighting and makeup, which should all be complementary to the emotions expressed.

Sāttvika Abhinaya

Sāttvika Abhinaya is often confused with facial expressions, which belong to Āngika Abhinaya. Sāttvika Abhinaya is the mental message, emotion or image communicated to the spectators through eyes. The dancer or actor has to bring of their own experiences something which will be authentic and capture the audience and elicit an empathetic response in them.