hi dear ones,
Electricity generation is the process of creating electricity from other forms of energy.
Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. There are many other technologies that can be and are used to generate electricity such as solar photovoltaics and geothermal power.
Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes are electric power transmission and electricity distribution which are normally carried out by the electrical power industry.
Methods of Generating Electricity
There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:
- Static electricity, from the physical separation and transport of charge (examples: triboelectric effect and lightning)
- Electromagnetic induction, where an electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of motion) into electricity
- Electrochemistry, the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery, fuel cell or nerve impulse
- Photoelectric effect, the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells
- Thermoelectric effect, direct conversion of temperature differences to electricity, as in thermocouples and thermopiles
- Piezoelectric effect, from the mechanical strain of electrically anisotropic molecules or crystals
- Nuclear transformation, the creation and acceleration of charged particles (examples: betavoltaics or alpha particle emission)
Rotating turbines attached to electrical generators produce most commercially available electricity. Turbines are driven by a fluid which acts as an intermediate energy carrier. The fluids typically used are:
- Steam:Water is boiled by nuclear fission or the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or petroleum). Some newer plants use the sun as the heat source: solar parabolic troughs and solar power towers concentrate sunlight to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then used to produce steam. Another renewable source of heat used to drive a turbine is Geothermal power. Either steam under pressure emerges from the ground and drives a turbine or hot water evaporates a low boiling liquid to create vapour to drive a turbine.
- Water:Turbine blades are acted upon by flowing water, produced by hydroelectric dams or tidal forces.
- Wind:Most wind turbines generate electricity from naturally occurring wind. Solar updraft towers use wind that is artificially produced inside the chimney by heating it with sunlight.
- Hot Gases:Turbines are driven directly by gases produced by the combustion of natural gas or oil.