Archive for March 10, 2010


hi dear ones,

Here are some tips for indian boys to hook a girl.

read them and implement them {for good only} !!

May the  FORCE  be with you !!

 Ladkiya Patane Ke 101 Farmulas

Formula 1
Hamesha Ladki ke aankho se aankhen milakar hi baat kare, isse Ladkiyan impress hoti hai.

Formula 2
Ladkiyon se jab bhi mile ek pyaari si smile jarur kare.

Formula 3
Hamesha unki help ke liye taiyaar rahe.

Formula 4
unka Birth day kabhi naa bhule aur unhe koi Beautiful gift jarur de, yaa ek Rose.

Formula 5
uus par kabhi bhi gussa na kare, Hamesha pyaar se hi pesh aaye.

Formula 6
Ladkiyan Shayari pasand karti hai, isliye aksar unhe unki khubsurti par koi Shayari sunate rahe, aisa karte rahne se wo aapke pyaar me pagal ho jayegi.

Formula 7
unse hamesha achche Dress me hi mile, yaad rakhe aap ko bhi attractive dkhna padega.

Formula 8
agar aap ek hi class me hai to unko Study me yaa Notes banane me Help karte rahe, aisa karne se aap unke aur bhi karib aate jaenge.

 Formula 9
Aap jab bhi unse mile unhe Hi yaa Hello yaa Shake hand karna na bhule, isse apna pan badata jaega.

Formula 100
Ladkiyon ko Good personality wale Ladke bahut achche lagte hai, issliye koi achchi si Gym me exercise kar apni Body ko attractive banaye. isse Ladkiyan aapko dekhte hi impress ho jaengi.

Formula 11
Agar aapke pass cell phone hai aur us ladki ke paas bhi ( jise aap patana chahte hai), to aksar usko Funny SMS yaa Love SMS yaa Friendship SMS bhejte rahe. aisa karne se aap unki yaado me bane rahenge.

Formula 12
Friendship aur Valentines day ko unhe hamesha wish kare aur ek Pyara sa Gift jarur de. aisa karna najdiki badane ke liye bahut jaruri hai.

Formula 13
Ladkiyon se hamesha Romantic mood me hi baat kare, aise baat kare jisse unhe lage ki aap ko unse baat karke bahut hi maza aa raha hai.

Formula 14
Hamesha unko Respect de, isse aap unki nazaron me ek achche Ladke bane rahenge, jo Ladki patane ke liye bahut hi jaruri hai.

Formula 15
Ladkiyon se kabhi mat sharmaiye, Maximum Ladki sharmile Ladko ko pasand nahi karti hai, issliye hamesha frankly unse mile.

Formula16
Apni Personality perfect rakhne ke liye hamesha chust durust dikhe, na ki sust yaa kaamchor. Ladkiyan furtile Ladko ko hi pasand karti hai.

Formula 17
agar Ladki Filmo ki shaukin hai to usse aksar Film ke hi bare me baate kare, isse wo aapse apni feeling bantkar khush aur impress hongi.
Formula 18

aap apne din ki shuruwat unhe ek mast Good Morning SMS bhejkar karen.

Formula 19
Raat ko sone se pahle ek Pyara sa Good Night SMS bhejkar bhi aap unhe impress kar sakte hai.

 Formula 20

Ladkiyon se usi topic par baat-chit karo jis me use baat karne me maza aaye, isse wo aapse bahut samay tak baat kar sakti hai. aur aapki Dosti Pyar me bhi badal sakti hai.

 Formula 21

Ladkiyon ke samne hamesha apna Cina taan kar chale, aisa karne se Mardangi jhalkti hai aur Ladkiyan Mardon ko hi pasand karti hai.

 Formula 22

Ladkiyan darpok ladko ko pasand nahi karti hai issliye aap darna chhod de aar Ladkiyon se ek nidar ki tarah react kare.

 Formula 23

agar Ladki aapse kuch mange to use jarur pura karne ki koshish kare, isse Ladkiyan aapse itni impress hongi jiski aap imagine bhi nahi kar sakte.

 Formula 24
Unke Birth day par sabse pehle aap wish kare, isse wo aapko kabhi nahi bhul payengi.

Formula 25
Hamesha unse kisi na kisi bahane milte rahe, isse aap unki nazaron aur yaado me aksar bane rahenge.

Formula 26
unhe Dinner ya Lunch ke liye offer kare, ager wo agree ho jaye to unke pasand ke hotel me unke pasand ki dish order kare. wo turant aap par fida ho jayegi.

Formula 27
Ladkiyon se pehle Dosti karo baad me unse apne Dil ki baat kahna, Pyar ke mamle me patience se kaam le.

Formula 28
jab wo aap se baat kare to unki baato ko unki aankon me aankhen dalkar dhyanpurvak sune.

Formula 29
Agar Ladki aapki neighbor ho to roz subah unko dekhte hi Good Morning jarur kahe.

Formula 30
Agar Ladki aapki Class met ho to unse shake hand jarur kare.

Formula 31
Agar aap unke sath antakhari khele to unko target karke Loveable song jarur gaye.

Formula 32
Agar wo aapse raste par Lift mange to aap use jarur de, aur aise react kare jaise aap bahut jaruri kaam se ja rahe the Lekin unke liye aapne jaruri kaam chhod kar unhe Lift di, isse wo aap se Impress hue bina nahi rah sakegi aur aap use aasani se pata lenge.

Formula 33
agar wo koi problem me ho to sabse pehle unki help ke liye aap pahuche, ye Ladki patane ke liye jaruri sabak hai.

Formula 34
Ladkiyan bahut emotional hoti hai isliye unki emotion ki hamesha sammaan kare.

 Formula 35

agar Ladki koi bhari kaam kar rahi hai to aap unki madad jarur kare. kaam me hath batane se Pyar badata hai.

Formula 36

agar School/College me unki Gaadi ka Petrol khatam ho gaya ho to aap apni Gaadi ka Petrol nikalkar jarur de.

Formula 37

unse hamesha hansi mazak karte rahe, Lekin ek limit me hi.

Formula 38

agar Ladki kahi paidal ja rahi ho to aap unhe apni Bike me Pahucha dene ka offer jarur kare, aisa impression jamane ke liye badiya mauka hai.

Formula 39

aap kisi Ladki ko bahut pyar karte hai to apni feeling ko Pink color ke paper par likhkar unhe jarur de, yaani unhe Love Letter likhe.

Formula 40

Maximum Ladkiyan Funny Ladke pasand karti hai, isliye aapko bhi Funny banana padega.

Formula 41

Jab bhi aap Ladkiyon se mile to unhe ek Mazedar Jokes jarur sunaye, yaa kuch Funny Shayari hi. (click here for Funny SMS & Funny Shayari Collection)

Formula 42

agar wo Morning walk karne jati hai to aap bhi uske sath sath walk karne jaye, subah ke mast mahaul me aap unse Mazedar baate kar unhe impress kar sakte hai.

Formula 43

agar unke paas cell phone hai to kisi bhi bahane unse Contact karte rahiye, aur SMS bhi bhejte rahiye. (click here for World’s largest collection of SMS)

Formula 44

agar unka tabiyat thik naa ho to unse milne jarur jaye, aur unka haal chaal jarur puche.

 Formula 45

apne Birth Day me unhe invite karna na bhule, aur aaye to ye kahna “aap hi ka intzar kar raha tha, ab aap aa gai ho ab mai Cake katunga.

Formula 46

unke diye hue Gift ki tarif jarur kare, tarif karna Deep me Ghee dalne ke saman hai.

Formula 47

agar unka Mail ID aap jante ho to unko Mail karte rahe aur ye ehsas dilaye ki aap dinbhar unki hi khayalo me khoye rahte hai.

Formula 48

agar aap ko apne Padosan ko patana ho to unke ghar aate jate rahe aur jarurat padne par unki madad karte rahe.

Formula 49

agar Padosan ka bhai bhi hai to, Pehle uske bhai se Dosti karo, uske bhai ki nazaro me aap ek samajhdar Ladke ki tarah raho, isse aapka unke ghar aana jana laga rahega.

 Formula 50

Har insan apni tarif sunana chahta hai, isliye aap Ladki ke har Chijo ki tarif karte rahe.

Formula 51

Ladkiyon se hamesha Confidence ke sath hi baat kare.

Formula 52

agar aap kisi Ladki ko Patana chahte hai to usse baat karne ki koshish kare. aur apni feeling ko kisi din Letter me likhkar unhe de do. isse Ladki aapke Himmat ki Kayal ho jayegi.

Formula 53

agar unka koi Nick name ho to aap unko Nick name se hi pukare. isse aap unko apne se lagenge.

Formula 54

Jab bhi aap unse mile to unko uske pasand ki Chocolate jarur de. Ladkiyon ke shauk pure karne se unko Patane me aasani hoti hai.

Formula 55
agar Ladki ice-cream khane ki shaukin ho to unko jarur isske liye offer karte rahe..

Formula 56

Ladkiyan agar group me ho to aap unhe (Jinhe Patana hai) hi dekhte rahe, aisa karne se wo bhi aap ke taraf attract ho jaegi.

Formula 57

agar aap kisi Ladki ko Propose karna chahte ho to, aap unka ek hath pakadkar unhe Red Rose dekar Propose kare. wo aap ka Proposal jarur accept kar legi.

Formula 58

unki har ada ki tarif jarur kare, wo jarur khush hongi.

Formula 59
Propose karna Mard ka kaam hai iss liye aap ye mat soche ki Ladki aakar aapko Propse karengi, Pahle aapko hi Propose karna hoga.

Formula 60
agar wo kabhi aapke ghar ke samne se gujre to use apne ghar jarur bulayen, aur Chaay ya Coffee jarur pilaye. isse wo aapke mehman navaji ki kayal ho jayegi.

Formula 61

agar aap unka ghar jante hai to Holi ke din uske ghar unke sath Holi khelne jana na bhule aur unke sath khub hansi mazak kare.

Formula 62
agar aap Party me kisi Ladki ko Patana chahte ho to, aap sabse pehle unse jakar mile aur apna Introduction de, isse dhire-dhire baat chit ka silsila shuru hoga aur aap use Pata lenge.

Formula 63

aap ki Padosan agar School/College jane ke liye nikal rahi ho to aap unke sang hole aur unse baat karte hue aap bhi jaye. aisa Continue 3 Dino tak kare aur 4th Din mat jana, wo 5th Din aapse jarur puchegi kal kyu nahi aaye. aur iss tarah mulakat se aap use Pata hi lenge.

Formula 64
Ladki Patane ke liye Confidence bahur hi jaruri hai isliye aap Pahle apne aap pe bharosa rakhiye ki aap use Pata kar hi Dumm lenge, aur aap apne Confidence ke bal par hi use Pata lenge.

Formula 65

Ladkiyan Patane ke liye apne aap me kuch quality paida kare, jaise Singing, Dancing, Body Building, Acting. quality hone se Ladki Patana bahut asan ho jata hai.

Formula 66
agar aap me koi buri aadat ho to use chhod de, bure Ladke pasand nahi kiye jate hai, isliye apni buri aadato ko chod de.

Formula 67

Ladkiyon ke samne kabhi bhi Smoking na kare aur na hi Drinking. ye baat hamesha yaad rakhe Ladkiyan Good Manners wale Ladko ko hi Pasand karti hai.

Formula 68

Ladkiyon ke samne kabhi bhi Gandi baate naa kare isse aapka unke samne ek bad boy ki image ban jaygi. aap unke samne Talented person ki tarah hi Behavior kare.

Formula 69

agar aap jante hai ki wo kis Film Hero ki Fane hai to aap usi Hero ke jaisi Hare Style rakhe aur usi ki tarah dikhne ki khoshish kare. Ladki aapse impress hogi hi.

Formula 70

aap hamesha unse sach bolne ki koshish kare, isse aap unhe sachche Ladke lagenge. jo ki impress karne ke liye jaruri hai.

Formula 71

aap unke prati hamesha vafadar rahe, har Ladkiyan ek vafadar sathi ki talash me rehti hai.

Formula 72

agar aapke makaan ke kiraye daar ko Patana ho to uske kuch mahine ka Kiraya maaf karde. isse aapki unse najdikiyan badengi. aur wo aapka ehsan mand ho jaengi

Formula 73

Ladkiyan hazirjawab Ladkon ko Pasand karti hai issliye aap hazirjawab dene wale person baniye.

Formula 74

Kai Ladkiyan filmo ki baate karna bahut pasand karti hai, aise Ladkiyon se aap unke pasand ki filmo ke baare me baate karke unhe impress kar sakte hai.

Formula 75

intelligent Ladko se Ladkiyan impress hoti hai issliye aap apni Study improve karke Ladkiyon ko impress kar sakte hai.

Formula 76

Ladkiyan Patane ke liye aapka General Knowledge Strong hona chahiye, GK Ladkiyon ko Patane me bahut hi Helpful hota hai.

Formula 77

Ladkiyan saaf suthri image wale Ladko ko Like karti hai issliye aap jhagde-jhanjhaton se dur hi rahe.

Formula 78

aap jis Ladki ko Patana chahte hai use agar koi pareshaan kar raha ho to aap us Ladki ki madad kare, isse wo Ladki aapse turant Pat jayegi.

Formula 79

agar wo koi khaas type ke Book read karne ki shaukin ho to aap use wo Book Gift kare (for exa. Comics, Film Magazines etc.). wo aapse jarur impress hongi aur aap unhe easily Pata lenge.

Formula 80

hamesha koi badiya Body Spray (Perfume) lagaya kare. aapke Body ki khushbu Ladkiyon ko aapki aur attract karegi
Formula 81

agar wo aapki kuch help kare to usse thanks jarur kahe. impression jamane ke liye ye chhoti-chhoti formalities bahut kaam aati hai.

Formula 82

agar aapke paas Bike ho to use hamesha saaf suthri rakhe, Ladkiyan Saaf suthri Bike me hi ghumna Pasand karti hai. issliye apne Bike ko attractive banaaye.

Formula 83

Aap Mobile set aisa rakhe jo aapki Personality ko suet kare. achhe Mobile set rakh kar Ladkiyon ko apni taraf attract kiya ja sakta hai.

Formula 84

apne cell phone ke wallpaper me unka Photo set kar ke rakhe, aur use dikhaye wo aapse jarur impress hongi.

Formula 85

aap kisi din unse ye kah kar ki “aap mujhe aapna autograph denge to ye meri khushnasibi hogi”. aap unka autograph mangkar unko impress kar sakte hai.

Formula 86

apne cell phone me koi Romantic Ring tone hi rakhe, Romantic Ring tone sunkar Ladkiyan jarur impress hoti hai. Ladkiyon ko Patane ke liye unhe impress karna bahut hi jaruri hai.

Formula 87

unke ghar ke paas se jab bhi gujre unhe dekhne ki koshish jarur kare. unhe ye ehsas dilana jaruri hai ki aap unme interest rakhte hai.

Formula 88

agar aap unse kahi mile aur unke sath me unke Parents ho to unke Paanv (charan) chhue. Ladki turant aapse impress hogi (agar Ladki JaanPehchan wali ho ussi condition me hi).

Formula 89

agar wo age me aapse chhoti ho phir bhi aap unse “AAP” kahkar hi baat kare. unhe lagna chahiye ki aap unka bahut respect karte hai.

Formula 90

unke sath kabhi bhi bahas nahi kare hamesha unki baat ka sath de. tabhi unko Pata sakte hai.

Formula 91

har Ladki apne Khubsurti ki tarif sunana chahti hai issliye aap unki khubsurti ka hamesha tarif karte rahe. ye Ladki Patane ka Super hit Formula hai.

Formula 92

aap unhe hamesha ye kahe ki wo Duniya ki sabse Beautiful Ladki hai. wo aap se hamesha khush rahegi aur easily set ho jayegi.

Formula 93

mere ek Dost ki 56 Girl Friend hai. usne un sabhi ko Patane ke liye jo Formula use kiya hai wo hai- “Ladkiyon se hamesha unke baare me hi baate karo”. wo hamesha Ladkiyon se unke hi baare me baate karte rahta tha aur Ladkiyan Pat gai.

Formula 94

unse kabhi bhi gandi baate na kare unse achhi baate hi kare, tabhi kamyabi milegi.

Formula 95

aap unse ye kahe ki aap unke liye kuch bhi kar sakte hai, wo aap se impress hogi hi.

Formula 96

Maximum Ladkiyan Clean shave kiye hue Ladko ko Like karti hai issliye sexy dikhne ke liye shave karte rahe.

Formula 97

Ladkiyon ko kabhi bhi ghur kar naa dekhe balki unhe hamesha Pyaar bhari nazaron se hi dekhe, Ladki aapki Diwani ho jayegi.

Formula 98

agar kabhi unke sath Film jane ka mauka mile to koi Romantic Film hi dekhne jaye, unke sath Romantic Film dekhi matlab Ladki Patti.

Formula 99

Ladkiyan apne Julfon (hair) ki tarif sunana Pasand karti hai, issliye unhe Patane ke liye unke Julfon par Shayari sunaye yaa tarif kare. (click here for Tarif Shayari)

Formula 100

aap unki sabhi baaton par agree kare unke kisi bhi baaton ko naa kaate, aap dono ke think milne ka ehsas dilakar bhi aap unhe aasani se Pata sakte hai.

Formula 101

aap unke sath hamesha unke baare me hi baate kare, aur unko special hone
 ka ehsas jarur dilaye, isse wo aapki Diwani ho jayegi

Hi dear ones,

Here is a branch of science which helps law enforcement agencies in finding the criminals through systematic analysis of the scene of crime.

Forensic science

Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action. Besides its relevance to a legal system, more generally forensics encompasses the accepted scholarly or scientific methodology and norms under which the facts regarding an event, or an artifact, or some other physical item (such as a corpse) are ascertained as being the case. In that regard the concept is related to the notion of authentication, where by an interest outside of a legal form exists in determining whether an object is what it purports to be, or is alleged as being.

The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, meaning “of or before the forum”. In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. The individual with the best argument and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.

In modern use, the term “forensics” in place of “forensic science” can be considered incorrect as the term “forensic” is effectively a synonym for “legal” or “related to courts”. However, the term is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word “forensics” with “forensic science”.

The Importance of Forensic Science in the Criminal Justice System

Forensic science plays an integral role in the criminal justice system. Well-trained forensic scientists and medical examiners can be the determining factor in the ability of evidence to adequately represent the facts of a case. Forensic science can be used in almost any criminal case; however, investigations of homicide, rape, and arson are those that benefit the most from forensic science.

Forensic science has shaped the world of justice, fuelling crime investigations and signifying the progress of modern technology. Forensic science of today covers :

  • Modern computer/clay facial reconstruction;
  • DNA fingerprinting;
  • Autopsy techniques;
  • Forensic anthropology;
  • Toxicology and much more.

What more reliable method is there to prove innocent or guilty other than through science?

Types of Evidence

 

EVIDENCE

Biological Evidence

In examining biological evidence, forensic scientists use tools both at the scene, and in the lab. When a forensic scientist arrives at a crime scene, he may look for human remains, blood or other bodily fluids and collect samples of any that are found. Because not all bodily fluids (particularly those that have been cleaned up after) are visible to the naked eye, the scientist can use the chemical Luminol to show latent traces of blood. Where large quantities of blood are present, an expert in blood spatter analysis can examine the patterns and size of the bloody areas to determine information such as the trajectory of the blood. This data can help an investigator deduce what type of weapon was used, or where the perpetrator and victim were standing during the attack.

DNA Evidence

DNA evidence uses the unique genetic markers that identify individuals to determine whether a person was at a scene, or to identify a piece of property as belonging to a specific person. In order to identify an individual’s DNA it must be extracted from a piece of property that a person has had contact with, and has left a bodily fluid such as semen, blood or saliva on. The scientist performs tests that identify genetic markers and create a profile that is unique to that person, and can be compared to a sample taken from any individual. Scientists may also attempt to get enough blood from evidence to conduct toxicology testing, to determine the presence of alcohol, drugs, poisons or chemicals.

Trace Evidence

Trace evidence is found where two objects have made contact with each other. When a person or an object touches another object, some ‘trace’ of the two will be exchanged. This is the theory behind the analysis of fingerprints, tire and footprints, and fiber analysis. Technicians lift fingerprints from surfaces by dusting the area with a powder which sticks to the oils in the fingerprint. She then employs fingerprint lifting tape to take the print from the surface to the lab, where it can be analyzed. In the case of a footprint, tire track or other pattern that was left in an outdoor area, a forensic scientist can fill in the depression with plaster, which can be removed after it sets up. The casting is taken to a lab where it is stored until needed, or compared against a known sample, such as a suspect’s shoe.

Ballistics

Some forensic scientists specialize in the field of ballistics testing. Ballistics is a science that involves the science of the flight path that a bullet takes as it travels to its target. Trained ballistics specialists can glean a tremendous amount of information about the type of weapon that was used, the path of the bullet and more through the examination of the bullet itself. Guns produce a specific pattern of wear and grooves on bullets as they are fired, and this pattern is unique. By examining the bullets and test-firing weapons, an investigator can frequently either identify the type of firearm that was used, where it was fired from, or even match the bullet with a specific weapon.

hi dear ones,

Black Hole 

BLACK Hole

According to the general theory of relativity, a black hole is a region of space from which nothing, including light, can escape. It is the result of the deformation of spacetime caused by a very compact mass. Around a black hole there is an undetectable surface which marks the point of no return, called an event horizon. It is called “black” because it absorbs all the light that hits it, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Under the theory of quantum mechanics black holes possess a temperature and emit Hawking radiation.

Despite its invisible interior, a black hole can be observed through its interaction with other matter. A black hole can be inferred by tracking the movement of a group of stars that orbit a region in space. Alternatively, when gas falls into a stellar black hole from a companion star, the gas spirals inward, heating to very high temperatures and emitting large amounts of radiation that can be detected from earthbound and Earth-orbiting telescopes.

Astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates, and have also found evidence of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. After observing the motion of nearby stars for 16 years, in 2008 astronomers found compelling evidence that a supermassive black hole of more than 4 million solar masses is located near the Sagittarius A* region in the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

white hole 

WHITE Hole

In astrophysics, a white hole is the hypothetical time reversal of a black hole. While a black hole acts as an attractor, drawing in any matter that crosses the event horizon, a white hole acts as a source that ejects matter from its event horizon. The sign of the acceleration is invariant (unchanged) under time reversal, so both black and white holes attract matter. The only potential difference between them is in the behavior at the horizon.

Black hole event horizons can only “suck up” matter, while white hole horizons ostensibly recede from any incoming matter at the local speed of light, so that the infalling matter never crosses. The infalling matter is then scattered and re-emitted at the death of the white hole, receding to infinity after having come close to the final singular point where the white hole is destroyed. The total proper time until an infalling object encounters the singular endpoint is the same as the proper time to be swallowed by a black hole, so the white hole picture does not say what happens to the infalling matter. Ignoring the classically unpredictable emissions of the white hole, the white hole and black hole are indistinguishable for external observers.

In quantum mechanics, the black hole emits Hawking radiation, and so can come to thermal equilibrium with a gas of radiation. Since a thermal equilibrium state is time reversal invariant, Stephen Hawking argued that the time reverse of a black hole in thermal equilibrium is again a black hole in thermal equilibrium. This implies that black holes and white holes are the same object. The Hawking radiation from an ordinary black hole is then identified with the white hole emission. Hawking’s semi-classical argument is reproduced in a quantum mechanical AdS/CFT treatment, where a black hole in anti-de Sitter space is described by a thermal gas in a gauge theory, whose time reversal is the same as itself.

Wormhole  

WORM Hole

In physics and fiction, a wormhole is a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that would be, fundamentally, a ‘shortcut’ through space and time. Although they are very popular in science fiction, there is no actual evidence that they exist. For a simple visual explanation of a wormhole, consider spacetime visualized as a two-dimensional (2-D) surface (see illustration, right). Now, if we ‘fold’ this surface along a (non-existant) 3rd dimension, it allows us to picture a wormhole ‘bridge’. (Please note, though, that this image is merely a visualization displayed to convey an essentially unimaginable structure existing in 4 or more dimensions.) A wormhole is, in theory, much like a tunnel with two ends each in separate points in space-time.

There is no observational evidence for wormholes, and, although wormholes are valid solutions in general relativity, this is only true if exotic matter can be used to stabilize them. Even if the wormhole is stabilized, the slightest fluctuation in space would collapse it. If such exotic matter — that is, matter with negative mass — does not exist, all wormhole-containing solutions to Einstein’s field equations are vacuum solutions, which require an impossible vacuum, free of all matter and energy. There is no evidence or experimental suggestion that wormholes do exist, except as predictions of certain (exotic) physical models. Wormholes allowed by current physical theories might arise spontaneously, but would vanish nearly instantaneously, and would likely be undetectable.

The American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler coined the term wormhole in 1957; however, in 1921, the German mathematician Hermann Weyl already had proposed the wormhole theory, in connection with mass analysis of electromagnetic field energy.

 IN THEORY ALL HOLES ARE as FOLLOWS

Black, White & Worm Holes

hi dear ones,

Some of the WORLD’s FINEST DIAMONDS

 KOH-I-NOOR (“Mountain of Light”):

Koh-i-noor is one of the world’s largest diamonds,
it weighed in at 186 carats when it was first
discovered *in 1304*. This oval shaped cut stone
is believed to have been set in the famous peacock throne
of Shah Jehan. Recut during the reign of Queen Victoria
it now weighs 108 carats and forms part of the British Crown Jewels.

 Cullinan I The Star of Africa

Cullinan I, the Star of Africa is the
largest diamond in the world:
Cullinan I – also known as The Star of Africa was named after
Sir Thomas Cullinan, owner of the mining company, and
currently claims the title of largest cut diamond in the world.
Of all the worlds largest diamonds Cullinan I is the largest.
It was cut by Asscher in Amsterdam, weighs 530.20carats,
and has 74 facets. The Cullinan now resides in the Tower of London
and is set in the sceptre of King Edward VII.

 The Excelsior – world’s second largest diamond:

The Excelsior *which means higher* is not only one of
the worlds largest diamonds it is the second largest diamond
ever found. It originally weighed 995.2 carats.
The diamond was cut into ten pieces, the three largest
weighing 158, 147and 130 carats. These pieces were then
cut into 21 gems ranging from70 carats to less than 1 carat.
An African mine worker found the diamond as he was loading
his truck, he kept the find secret until he could safely
turn it over to the mine manager who rewarded him
with some money, a horse and a saddle.

 Orloff the world’s third largest diamond:

Orloff – the worlds third largest cut diamond weighs 194 carats.
It was once one of the eyes of the idol Sheringham,
in the temple of Brahma, later it was acquired by the Shah Nadir
who desired to own one of the worlds largest diamonds.
In 1775 it was given to Catherine II. of Russia by Grigori Orloff,
one of her ex-lovers, and has been called the Orloff  since then.

The Great Mogul:

The Great Mogul is one of the world’s largest diamonds.
The rough diamond was discovered in the 17thcentury,
weighed 793 carats and was named after Shah Jehan…
builder of the Taj Mahal.
The Idols Eye large diamond:

The Idols Eye is a famous pear shaped diamond,
its polished size weighing in at 70.20 carats makes it
one of the worlds largest diamonds. The name of the stone
comes from the legend claiming that the Sheik of Kahmir stoleit
from an idols eye to pay the Sultan of Turkey a ransom
for Princess Rasheetah.

Sefadu one of the world’s largest diamonds:

Sefadu was found in Sierra Leonne in 1970 and is owned by
American diamond company Lazare  Kaplan.The uncut stone
weighs 620 carats which easily makes it one of
the world’s largest diamonds.

Centenary –

One of the world’s largest diamonds The Centenary,
was discovered at the Premier Mine of South Africa on the
17th of July 1986 and joined the ranks of the world’s largest diamonds,
it weighed in at 599.10 carats in rough form. Master-cutter
Gabi Tolkowsky took almost three years to complete its
transformation into the world’s largest, modern-cut flawless diamond.
The Centenary has 75 facets on top, 89 on the bottom and
83 on the girdle, for a total of 247 facets. It weighs 273.85 carats
and now forms part of the British Crown Jewels.

Premier Rose:

One of the world’s largest diamonds The Premier Rose
became one of the worlds largest diamonds when it was
discovered in 1978. The diamond weighed 353.9 carats
and was cut into three diamonds known as the Premier Rose family.
All of them qualify to be one of the worlds largest diamonds.
The largest of the three kept the name Premier Rose and
now weighs 137.02carats, is cut with 189 facets, and is
the second largest pear shaped diamond in the world.
It was sold in 1979 for$10,000,000.00.

The Regent –

One of the world’s largest diamonds The Regent
another of the worlds largest diamonds was discovered in
1701 by an Indian slave near Golconda, it weighed 410carats
in the rough. Once owned by William Pitt, the English Prime Minister,
it was cut into a cushion shaped brilliant of 140.50carats
and, until it was sold to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France
when Louis XV was a boy in 1717, was called The Pitt.
It was then renamed The Regent and set in the crown Louis XV
wore at his coronation. After the French revolution, it was
owned by Napoleon Bonaparte who set it in the hilt of his sword.
It is now on display in the Louvre as one of the worlds largest diamonds.

The Blue Hope –

One of the world’s largest diamonds The Blue Hope
another of the worlds largest diamonds was once owned by Louis XIV
and officially designated the *blue diamond of the crown*.
It was stolen during the French Revolution but showed up again
in 1830 and was bought by Henry Philip Hope of London,
the diamond was named after the new owner. The Blue Hope Diamond
is believed to carry a curse, two of the owners had their
entire family die just one year apart. It now resides in the
Smithsonian in Washington where it is recognized as one of
the world’s largest diamonds.

 The Sancy –

One of the worlds largest diamonds The Sancy is named
after one of its owners Seigneur de Sancy, a French Ambassador
to Turkey in the late 16th century. It was first owned
by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who lost it in battle in1477.
He loaned it to the French king, Henry III, who wore it in
The cap with which he concealed his baldness. Henry IV of France
Also borrowed the stone from  Sancy, but it was sold
in 1664 to James I of England. In 1688, James II,
King of England, fled with it to Paris and it has never been
found since. The  Sancy weighed 55 carats making it one of the
smallest of the worlds largest diamonds.

Taylor Burton –

One of the world’s largest diamonds The Taylor-Burton diamond
was found in the Premier mine in1966, the rough stone
weighed 240.80 carats. The famous diamond was purchased
by Harry Winston who commissioned the stone cleaved into two pieces,
the larger piece weighed 162 carats and was eventually
cut into a pear shaped 69.42 carat diamond. It was
later auctioned for$1,050,000 and named the “Cartier”. The
diamond was then purchased by Richard Burton and given to
Elizabeth Taylor and renamed  the Taylor-Burton. In 1978,
following her divorce from Richard Burton, Elizabeth put
one of the worlds largest diamonds up for sale to raise funds
for a hospital in Botswana. The current owner is
Robert Mouawad, President of the Mouawad Group.

Hi dear ones,

PATENT FILINGS IN INDIA

The Indian Patent Office is administered by the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks (CGPDTM). This is a subordinate office of the Indian government and administers the Indian law of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks.

The total number of patent filings by residents in India per million population was 3.40 in 2004-05 as compared to the world average of 250.72  worked out on the basis of the world population (6377.6 million) as per data given in the  State of World Population 2004: United Nations Population Fund Report and the number of patents filed worldwide during 2004 (15,99,000) as per data given in World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity, 2006 Edition. 

            The number of patents in force in India in 2004 was 6,406, while it was 1,82,385 in China. The world average of patents in force in 2004 was 846.71 worked out on the basis of the world population (6377.6 million) as per data given in the State of World Population 2004: United Nations Population Fund Report and the number of patents in force worldwide during 2004 (5.4 million) as per data given in World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity, 2006 Edition.

            There were a total of about 5.6 million patents in force worldwide in 2005 as per World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity, 2007 Edition. However, this number includes patents obtained in different countries for the same invention also. Therefore, it will not be feasible to draw a conclusion on the proportion of patents in force in India vis-à-vis those in force worldwide. However, the number of Patents in India in force was 6857 in 2005. 

Patent: Some Details

A patent is an exclusive right granted by a country to an inventor, allowing the inventor to exclude others from making, using or selling his or her invention in that country during the life of the patent.  It does NOT give the inventor the right to use or “practice” the invention, and thus the right is subject to any prior rights that others may have to related inventions.  So for example, if you have a patent on a “vessel to hold coffee” and I have a patent on a “handle for a vessel”, then I can prevent you from putting a handle on a coffee cup and you can prevent me from attaching a cup to my handle.

A patent is issued to the individual inventor and not to a company, although it is typical practice to have employees assign inventions to their employer. Patent protection is available for any product, process or design that meets certain requirements of novelty, non-obviousness and utility.

The economic importance of patents

Today’s economy is becoming increasingly knowledge-based and intellectual property in the form of patents plays a vital role in this growth. Patents can encourage innovation and economic growth under certain conditions and hamper it under others. The impact of patents on innovation and economic performance is so complex that a fine-tuned patent system is crucial to ensure maximum benefit for a country’s firms and its overall economy.

In an ideal world, the more patents filed, the higher the level of innovation in a country. This in turn leads to economic growth and more money invested in research and development – a virtuous circle which can only exist when there is a sufficiently high entry level for patents.

Because large firms can easily absorb the costs connected with the patent process, their application strategy has significantly changed in recent years. Trying to protect small improvements, they are filing several applications for any given invention.

Impact on large companies:

Today, the number of high-quality patents – from the point of view of substance – held by a company increasingly defines its overall value. The stronger a company’s patent portfolio, the more it is worth on the stock market, and the higher the price a competitor must pay in the case of a takeover.

Impact on research institutions:

More and more public research institutions and universities have started patenting their inventions, enhancing technology diffusion and the transfer of knowledge from universities to the public. (It’s not uncommon for start-ups in sectors such as bio-technology to have their roots in public research institutions.)

While defensive patenting may hamper innovation, some of the key challenges lie in the nature of the patent system itself: While it protects innovation, it also creates de facto monopolies. In a development especially true for emerging technologies, patents can hinder innovation when essential knowledge and foundational inventions are overly protected: This may discourage follow-on inventors if the holder of a patent for an essential technology refuses access to others under reasonable conditions. The EPO aims to ensure there is always a clear “inventive step” when publishing patents in order to minimize the impact of strategic patenting. In developing countries, there is still a lack of awareness that intellectual property can be a driving force for economic growth.

On basis of above information can we say that we Indian’s are either careless or ignorant about patent filing !

hi dear ones,

What Is a Copyright?

Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. The Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly.

The copyright protects the form of expression rather than the subject matter of the writing. For example, a description of a machine could be copyrighted, but this would only prevent others from copying the description; it would not prevent others from writing a description of their own or from making and using the machine. A copyright protects original works that fall under the categories of literature, dramatic, musical, artistic, and intellectual. These works may be published or unpublished, and the Copyright Act  gives the owner exclusive rights to reproduce his or her work in any medium. A copyright protects a form of expression, but not the subject matter of the work. For example, if someone wrote an article about a new car on the market, the text would be copyrighted, preventing someone else from using that particular material. A copyright does not prevent others from writing their own original article about this new car, however, or from using or making the car themselves.

What Is a Trademark or Servicemark?

A trademark is a word, name, symbol or device which is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others. A servicemark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. The terms “trademark” and “mark” are commonly used to refer to both trademarks and servicemarks.

Trademark rights may be used to prevent others from using a confusingly similar mark, but not to prevent others from making the same goods or from selling the same goods or services under a clearly different mark.

A trademark is used to protect a word, symbol, device, or name that is used for the purpose of trading goods. The trademark indicates the source of goods and distinguishes them from the goods of others. A trademark may also be used to prevent others from using a mark that might be confused with another; trademarks, however, do not prevent other people or businesses from producing the same product or services under a different mark.

What Is a Patent ?

Patents grant exclusive monopoly rights for a limited term for novel and inventive products and processes, in return for publication of details of the products and processes to encourage dissemination of information and promote further development. Patent protection may provide a monopoly for ideas and concepts when embodied in product form or reproducible process. The monopoly however is only granted after an administrative process to determine whether prescribed eligibility requirements have been met.

Patent for an invention grants a property right to the inventor that will prevent anyone else from making, using, or selling an invention. A patent lasts for a limited amount of time, usually 20 years from the date the application was filed, and is only effective in the country in which it was filed. The application for a patent must include a detailed description of how the invention works. Since a patent is considered “property,” it may be bought, sold, mortgaged, or licensed by the owner.