Archive for March 3, 2010

hi dear ones,

I found this article on the River SARASVATI.This is very enlightening . Please read it carefully !!!

Path of SARASVATI River

Vedic Saraswati and the Arabian Sea

 R.V.Karanth, P.S. Thakkar, M.S. Gadhvi, D.A. Sant and J.G. Negi

 One of the highly debated geo-archaeological aspects is existence of the River Sarasvati, most respected river of the land in the ancient Hindu text of Vedas. The debate is of more than one type; (1) whether the river exist at all, (2) if existed during which period, (3) what were its tributaries, (4) where was it flowing, (5) was it debouching into the sea/gulf or was it a tributary of some other major river, (6) if it was debouching into the sea/gulf where and near which geographic location, (7) when and why did it disappear? Several palaeo-channels of rivers have been identified in the region of Rajasthan, Haryana Uttar Pradesh and adjacent areas some of which are assigned to Sarasvati. The River Sarasvati is considered to have migrated from east to west. Most discussions end up the River Sarasvati to the north of the state of Gujarat in western India (viz. Oldham, 1886; Wilhelmy, 1968; Sridhar et al., 1999; Malik et al., 1999), debouching into Arabian Sea/Rann of Kachchh. Whereas a few others placed the river in the eastern part of Kachchh and Saurashtra, emptying itself into the Gulf of Kachchh/Little Rann at Prabhas Patan near Mehsana (Iyengar and Radhakrishna, 2005). There is the view that Saraswati flowed through central Saurashtra and entered Arabian Sea near Prabhas Patan, Somnath-Veraval (Thakker, 2002). The present paper deals with the extension of Sarasvati and other northern rivers into the region of Gujarat and its entry into the sea, taking historical, geomorphic, tectonic and palaeo-climate/ sea level changes aspects into consideration.

 Two very important factors to be considered are: (1) Rise and fall of the sea level in the last Glacial from –120m around 18,000 yrs BP to +5-7m around 4,500 yrs BP during which the civilization of the region evolved socially and intellectually. The unusually large shelf offered a vast fertile land for the early civilization to prosper and flourish using the waters of the northern rivers flowing through their land. Withdrawal of the sea by –50m and –100m exposes additional 100, and 250, respectively to the western shelf. The period of late Quaternary Glaciations and subsequent melting of the ice sheets resulted in the onset of dry and wet phases. In addition to melting ice sheets from the Himalayas, copious rains in the wet phase had provided a large network of fluvial system to evolve in western India. (2) Tectonic instability of the region owing stresses generated from intense compression in the late Cenozoic which is expressed in the form of recurring seismic events (two earthquakes of magnitude over M7.5 within the span of last two centuries) and upheaval and subsidence of land (e.g., uplift of Allah Bund by 5-6m and subsidence of Sindree Fort and surrounding area during 1819 Kachchh earthquake. An overall uplift of the region is expected from the existing compress ional regime. These two factors have brought frequent changes in the fluvial system of western India.

 A critical study of the satellite imageries reveals several palaeo-channels in Rajasthan, Haryana and Utter Pradesh extending to west and southwest. Further tracing of the channels extend the rivers into the region of Gujarat finally entering the sea through the Ranns and Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Cambay. During low sea level regime the Rann of Kachchh and Gulf of Cambay have played a significant role in sustaining the course of northern rivers as well as the human settlements to thrive as evidenced by the following: (1) Discovery of distinct palaeo-channel with fortified settlement within the Great Rann of Kachchh (Thakker, 2001) and numerous channels that appeared in the Great Rann of Kachchh immediately after 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. (2) Recent discovery of underwater township near Surat (Gupta et al., 2002 and Kathiroli et al., 2003). Study of the satellite imageries point to the existence of a channel in the Gulf of Cambay extending for 250km. The channel ends with some obscure features resembling human settlements (Thakker, 2005).

 The zone that connects Saurashtra and Gujarat Mainland forms yet another curious structure. It formed a depocentre for the sediments brought by rivers from the east and west, and presently it accommodates the famous Nal Sarovar, a possible remnant of the sea. This zone offered channel for the rivers to flow in the past.

The river under discussion was flowing several millennia ago when the sea level was far lower (-60 to-120m, over 10,000yr BP); i.e., a greater part of the western Indian shelf was exposed and also when the sea level was higher (+5-6m, ~4-5000yr BP) than the present. Study of the satellite imagery reveals the traces of several palaeo-channels and human settlements within the Rann of Kachchh indicating flow of rivers in the Ranns in the past which subsequently flowed through the area between Saurashtra and Gujarat Mainland, further extending into the region which presently forms the Gulf of Cambay and entering the sea around 150 km west of present strandline.

 Geoarchaeological studies in coastal Maharashtra: Implications for understanding

 Savita Ghate*, S.G. Deo and S.N. Rajaguru

*Dr. Ambedkar College, Pune 411 006

 In recent years it has been realized that concept of global sea level curve can not be applied even to tectonically and isostatically stable coasts. Formerly it was thought that the sea level reached its present level around 6000 B.P. on the coast of Maharashtra and it then fluctuated within the amplitude of 1 or 2 m in the last 6000 years. In the last decade detailed archaeological investigations of some famous port sites like Sopara, Chaul, Kelshi, Guhagar, Palshet have been carried out by scholars from the Deccan College, Pune.

 These ports seem to have been in operation since the beginning of the Early Historic period (~2nd 3rd century B.C.) and got defunct only recently (i.e. in 18th century). Our geomorphological and archaeological studies show that these ports were either on open sea or slightly inland on the creeks affected by tidal fluctuations.

 In most of the cases the virgin layer over which any human activity has taken place is beach-dune complex rock- locally known as ‘karal’. Sites mentioned above are within 3-4 km from the present shore. Archaeological data received from these sites indicate that these sites are affected more by configurational changes than by global factor like glacio-eustasy.

hi dear ones,                                                                    

VIRUS Found !!!

Computer viruses

Computer viruses have a relatively short history by the damages caused by some of the most dangerous viruses pushed cyber-experts to open a chapter that includes a huge database on computer viruses and the cost of damages caused along with companies, government and universities highly affected by malware.

Here are some of the most dangerous computer viruses in history:

Jerusalem – 1987

This is one of the first MS-DOS viruses in history that caused enormous destructions, affecting many countries, universities and company worldwide. On Friday 13, 1988 the computer virus managed to infect a number of institutions in Europe, America and the Middle East. The name was given to the virus after one of the first places that got “acquainted” with it – the Jerusalem University.

Along with a number of other computer viruses, including “Cascade”, “Stoned”, “Vienna” the Jerusalem virus managed to infect thousands of computers while still remaining unnoticed. Back then the anti-virus programs were not as advanced as they are today and a lot of users had little belief of the existence of computer viruses.

Morris (a.k.a. Internet Worm) – November 1988

This computer virus infected over 6,000 computer systems in the United States, including the famous NASA research Institute, which for some time remained completely paralyzed. Due to erratic code, the worm managed to send millions of copies of itself to different network computers, being able to entirely paralyze all network resources. The damages caused by the Morris computer virus were estimated at $96 millions.

To be able to spread the computer virus used errors in such operating systems as Unix for VAX and Sun Microsystems. There were a number of other interesting ideas used by the virus – for example it could pick user passwords.

Solar Sunrise – 1998

A decade later the situation didn’t change, it might have gotten even got worse. Using a computer virus, hackers, in 1998, penetrated and took control of over 500 computers systems that belonged to the army, government and private sector of the United States. The whole situation was dubbed Solar Sunrise after the popular vulnerabilities in computers that run on the operating system called Sun Solaris. Initially it was believed that the attacks were planed by the operatives in Iraq. It was later revealed that the incidents represented the work of two American teenagers from California. After the attacks, the Defense Department took drastic actions to prevent future incidents of this kind.

Melissa – 1999

For the first time computers got acknowledged with Melissa computer virus on March 26, 1999, when the virus shut down Internet mail system, which got blocked with e-mails infected by the worm. It is worth mentioning that at first Melissa was not meant to cause any harm, but after it overloaded servers the virus led to unpredictable problems. For the first time it spread in the Usenet discussion group Melissa was hidden within a file called “List.DiC”, which featured passwords that served as keys to unlocking 80 pornographic websites. The original form of the virus was sent through e-mail to different users.

Melissa computer virus was developed by David L. Smith in Aberdeen Township, New Jersey. Its name comes from a lap dancer that the programmer got acknowledged with while in Florida. After being caught, the creator of the virus was sentenced to 20 months in federal prison and ordered to pay a fine of $5,000. The arrest represented a collaboration of FBI, New Jersey State Police and Monmouth Internet.

Melissa had the ability to multiply on Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000, as well as Microsoft Excel 97, 2000 and 2003. In addition, the virus had the ability to mass-mail itself from Microsoft Outlook 97 or Outlook 98.

I Love You – May 2000

Using a similar method as the Melissa, the computer virus dubbed “I Love You” managed to infect millions of computers around the world in just one night. Just like Melissa this computer virus sent passwords and usernames, which were stored on the attacked computers, back to the developer of the virus. After authorities traced the virus they found that a young Filipino student was behind the attack. The young man was released due to the fact that the Philippines did not have any law that would prevent hacking and spreading malware. This situation served as one of the premises for creating the European Union’s global Cybercrime Treaty.

The Code Red worm – July 2001

This 21st century computer virus managed to penetrate tens of thousands of systems that ran Microsoft Windows NT as well as Windows 2000 server software. The damages caused by the Code Red computer virus were estimated at a total of $2 billion. Core Red was developed to use the power of all computers it infected against the official website of the White House at a predetermined date. In collaboration with different virus hunters and tech firms, the White House managed to decipher the code of the Code Red virus and stop traffic as the malware started its attacks.

Nimda – 2001

Shortly after the September 11 tragedy this computer virus infected hundreds of thousands of computers worldwide. Nimda was considered to be one of the most complicated viruses, having up to 5 different methods of infecting computers systems and duplicating itself.

Downadup – 2009

The latest and most dangerous virus is the “downadup” worm, which was also called “Conficker”. The computer security company F-Secure stated that the computer virus has infected 3.5 million computers worldwide. This malicious program was able to spread using a patched Windows flaw. Downadup was successful in spreading across the Web due to the fact that it used a flaw that Microsoft patched in October in order to distantly compromise computers that ran unpatched versions of Microsoft’s operating system. But the greatest power of the worm is believed to be the ability of computers, infected with the worm, to download destructive code from a random drop point. F-Secure stated that three of the most affected countries were China, Brazil and Russia.

hi dear ones,

2DAY -today                            


2MORO -tomorrow
2NITE -to night
AAM -as a matter of fact
AB -ah bless!
ADctd2Luv -addicted to love
AFAIC -as far as i know
AKA -also known as
ALIWanIsU – all i want is you
ALOrO -all or nothing
AML -as soon as possilbe
ATB -all the best
B4 -before
BaBitsU -baby it’s you
BBFN -bye bye for now
BBSD -be back soon darling
BCNU -be seeing you
BdBy -bad boy
BF -boy friend
BFN -bye for now
BGWM -be gentle with me (please)
BRB -be right back
BTW -by the way
BYKT -but you knew that
Cld9? -cloud 9?
CMIIW -correct me if i’m wrong
CSThnknAU -can’t stop thinking about you
CU -see you
CUIMD -see you in my dreams
CUL8R -see you later
CYA -see ya
D8 -date
DLTBBB -don’t let the bed bugs bit
4EVRYRS -for ever yours
EOL -end of lecture
F2T -free to talk
FITB -fill in the blank
FWIW -for what it’s worth
FYEO -for your eyes only
FYI -for your information
GAO -glad all over
GF -girl friend
GG -good game
GMeSumLuvin -gimme some lovin’
GMTA -great minda think alike
Gr8 -great
GrOvyBab -groovy baby
GrwOldWivMe -grow old with me
GSOH -good salary, own home
GSOH -good sense of humour
GTSY -glad to see you
H8 -hate
HAGN -have a good night
HAND -have a nice day
HITULThtILuvU? -have i told you lately that i love you?
HidMeClse -hold me close
Hot4U -hot for you
HTH -hope this helps
H&K -hug and kiss
IAC -in any case
ICLW\YLuv -I can’t live without your love
IDK -I don’t know
IDntDsrveU -I don’t deserve you
IGotUBbe -I got you babe
IIRC -if I recall correctly
IJC2SalLuvU -I just called to say I love you
ILUVU -I love you
IMBLuv -it must be love
IMHO -in my humble opinion
IMNSHO -in my not so humble opinion
ImRdy4Luv -I’m ready for love
ImT14U -I’m the one for you
IOW -in other words
IOWAN2BWU -I only want to be with you
IYKWIN -If you know what i mean
IYSS -if you say so
JM2p -just my two pennyworth
JstCLMe -just call me
KIT -keep in touch
KOTC -kiss on the cheek
KOTL -kiss on the lips
L8 -late
L8R -later
LETA -letter
LOL -laugh out loud
LMAO -laughing my ass off
LstinU -lost in you
LTNC -long time no see
LtsGt2gthr -let’s get together
LuvU -love you
Luv2LuvUBab -love to love you baby
LuvisTDrug -love is the drug
LuvMeLuvMyDog -love me, love my dog
M$ULkeCraZ -miss you like crazy
MBURBMJ -my but you’re beautiful Miss Jones
MGB -may god bless
MkeMyDaSa+! -make my day, say yes
MMDP -make my day punk!
Mob -mobile
MYOB -mind your own business
NE -any
NE1 -anyone
NO1 -no-one
MO -moment
OIC -oh, I see
OTOH -on the other hand
PCM -please call me
PLS -please
PPL -people
QT -cutie
R -are
ResQMe -rescue me
RMB -ring my bell
RmbaYaMne -remember you’re mine
ROTFL -roll on the floor laughing
RU? -are you?
RUOK? -are you okay (ok)
Salt&ILDoIT -say it & I’ll do it
SETE -Smiling ear to ear
SIT -stay in touch
SITD -still in the dark
SO -significant other
SOH -sense of humour
SOHF -sense of humour failure
SOME1 -someone
SRy -sorry
StckOnU -stuck on you
StndByYaMan -stand by your man
SvnALMyLuv4U -saving all my love for you
SWALK -sent with a loving kiss
SWG -scientific wild guess
SYS -see you soon
2Hot2Hndle -to hot to handle
TDTU -totally devoted to you
THNQ -thank you
Thx -thanks
Ti2GO -time to go
TIC -tongue in cheek :-p
TkeAChnceOnMe? -take a chance on me?
TLMeImDrmn -tell me I’m dreaming
TMIY -take me I’m yours
TPTB -the powers that be
TTFN -ta ta for now
TTYL8R -talk to you later
TWIMC -to whom it may concern
U -you
UCnDoMgic -you can do magic
UdoSumthn2Me -you do something to me
UR -you are
U+Me=Luv -you + me = love
WAN2 -want to
WAN2TLK? -want to talk
WenCnICUAgn? -when can I see you again?
WER R U? -where are you?
WLUMRyMe? -will you marry me?
WRT -with respect to
WTTW -word to the wise
WUWH -wish you were here
X -kiss
XLNT -excellent
Xoxoxoxo -hugs and kisses
Xclusvly Yas -exclusively yours
Y? -why?
YBS -you’ll be sorry


hi dear ones,

Threatened species

Many plants and animals are threatened or endangered due largely to habitat loss and population pressure apart from hunting and extraction. INDIA stands out as one of the few countries with high human populations as well as a high number of threatened species.

 Threatened plant species

Threat Category (IUCN) Number of species
Extinct 19
Extinct/Endangered 43
Endangered 149
Endangered/Vulnerable 2
Vulnerable 108
Rare 256
Indeterminate 719
Insufficiently Known 9
No information 1441
Not threatened 374
TOTAL 3120

 Threatened Animal species

Number of species per group according to IUCN threat categories